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Lecture

PSYB10H3 Lecture Notes - Social Perception, Henry Louis Gates Jr., Real Change

21 pages50 viewsFall 2010

Department
Psychology
Course Code
PSYB10H3
Professor
Ingrid L.Stefanovic

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Lecture 20: Stereotyping and Prejudice
Lecture Overview
x Group-Based Bias
Intergroup cognition
Intergroup affect
Intergroup behaviour
x Reducing Prejudice & Discrimination
Group-Based Bias
Psychological components
1. AffectÆprejudice ± the emotional attitude that we have towards somebody else
2. BehaviorÆdiscrimination ± when we act towards others in a certain way as a result of the
group the individual belongs to. This can be positive or negative
3. CognitionÆstereotyping and outgroup homogeneity
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membership in a group, and not their actions
Cognitive Component: Stereotypes
x Beliefs about the typical characteristics (usually traits) of group members
x Schemas used to categorize complex social groups
We apply a schema towards somebody on the basis of their group membership
Affective Component: Prejudice
x A hostile or negative attitude toward a distinguishable group of people, based only on
their membership in that group (not their actual actions)
Behavioural Component: Discrimination
x Unjustified negative or harmful action (usually, but can be positive) toward a member of
a group, simply because of his or her membership in that group
Stereotyping
Topics:
x Stereotypes Across Time
x Mechanisms
x Who stereotypes?
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ò Europe and their Defining
ó
x An example of how stereotypes have existed across time and throughout history
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characteristics one would have based on what country they lived in
x Examples:
German: open hearted
French: frivolous
Spanish: arrogant
x Stereotypes are not new, however the content of a stereotype is usually relevant to the
current time
Katz & Braly (1933) wòó
x The Princeton trilogy was a study of stereotypes over time, with stereotypes evaluated in
three different studies in three different decades
x Phase 1: In 1933 researchers collected racial stereotypes from college students
ò wvvó
x Katz & Braly (1933)
x GERMANS:
Scientifically minded (78%)
Industrious (65%)
Stolid (44%)
x JEWS:
Shrewd (79%)
Mercenary (49%)
Industrious (48%)
x ITALIANS:
Artistic (53%)
Impulsive (44%)
Passionate (37%)
x In many cases, there was a high degree of consensus (agreement) among the students
who participated
x Gave impetus to investigate the nature and content of stereotypes
The Princeton Trilogy
x Longitudinal Study of Stereotypes:
Katz & Bradley (1933)
Gilbert (1957)
Karlins et al. (1969)
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CHART ON SLIDE 12
x Conclusions:
Stereotypes are generally stable over time
Stereotypes are also contextually bound. The current cultural climate predicts
what stereotypes will occur
,Q$PHULFDV were stereotyped as industrious, but over time this
became less important. 7KLVZDVEHFDXVHLQWKH¶VWKHJUHDW
depression occurred, however as the economy boomed after WW2 (in the
¶VSHRSle saw $PHULFDs as more materialistic as opposed to
industrious
Jews were viewed as Shrewd for 2 decades, but this stereotype has since
become less prominent
,QWKH¶VWKHUHZDVDEXUVWLQWKHVWHUHRW\SHWKDWWKH-DSDnese were
extremely nationalistic. Why was this stereotype created at this time? It is
EHFDXVHGXULQJ::$PHULFDVZLWQHVVHGWKH-DSDQHVH.DPLND]H
SLORW¶VDQGIHOWWKDWDOO-DSDQHVHZHUHH[WUHPHQDWLRQDOLVWVMXVWOLNHWKHVH
pilots. Now that WW2 is behind us, this stereotype has also become less
prominent.
Stereotypes: Mechanisms
x Usually broad and generalized:
³7UDLW-EDVHVWHUHRW\SH
E.g. Women are more knowledgeable of household chores than mechanics
x Can also be dependent on context:
IF _________ , THEN ___________
If at the mechanic, Sally will be passive, but if picking out curtains, than Sally
will be aggressive
Context will make a difference as to what we expect of a person based solely on
their group membership
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