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PSYB10H3 Lecture Notes - Social Perception, Henry Louis Gates Jr., Real Change

Course Code
Ingrid L.Stefanovic

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Lecture 20: Stereotyping and Prejudice
Lecture Overview
x Group-Based Bias
Intergroup cognition
Intergroup affect
Intergroup behaviour
x Reducing Prejudice & Discrimination
Group-Based Bias
Psychological components
1. AffectÆprejudice ± the emotional attitude that we have towards somebody else
2. BehaviorÆdiscrimination ± when we act towards others in a certain way as a result of the
group the individual belongs to. This can be positive or negative
3. CognitionÆstereotyping and outgroup homogeneity
membership in a group, and not their actions
Cognitive Component: Stereotypes
x Beliefs about the typical characteristics (usually traits) of group members
x Schemas used to categorize complex social groups
We apply a schema towards somebody on the basis of their group membership
Affective Component: Prejudice
x A hostile or negative attitude toward a distinguishable group of people, based only on
their membership in that group (not their actual actions)
Behavioural Component: Discrimination
x Unjustified negative or harmful action (usually, but can be positive) toward a member of
a group, simply because of his or her membership in that group
x Stereotypes Across Time
x Mechanisms
x Who stereotypes?

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ò Europe and their Defining
x An example of how stereotypes have existed across time and throughout history
characteristics one would have based on what country they lived in
x Examples:
German: open hearted
French: frivolous
Spanish: arrogant
x Stereotypes are not new, however the content of a stereotype is usually relevant to the
current time
Katz & Braly (1933) wòó
x The Princeton trilogy was a study of stereotypes over time, with stereotypes evaluated in
three different studies in three different decades
x Phase 1: In 1933 researchers collected racial stereotypes from college students
ò wvvó
x Katz & Braly (1933)
Scientifically minded (78%)
Industrious (65%)
Stolid (44%)
Shrewd (79%)
Mercenary (49%)
Industrious (48%)
Artistic (53%)
Impulsive (44%)
Passionate (37%)
x In many cases, there was a high degree of consensus (agreement) among the students
who participated
x Gave impetus to investigate the nature and content of stereotypes
The Princeton Trilogy
x Longitudinal Study of Stereotypes:
Katz & Bradley (1933)
Gilbert (1957)
Karlins et al. (1969)

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x Conclusions:
Stereotypes are generally stable over time
Stereotypes are also contextually bound. The current cultural climate predicts
what stereotypes will occur
,Q$PHULFDV were stereotyped as industrious, but over time this
became less important. 7KLVZDVEHFDXVHLQWKH¶VWKHJUHDW
depression occurred, however as the economy boomed after WW2 (in the
¶VSHRSle saw $PHULFDs as more materialistic as opposed to
Jews were viewed as Shrewd for 2 decades, but this stereotype has since
become less prominent
extremely nationalistic. Why was this stereotype created at this time? It is
pilots. Now that WW2 is behind us, this stereotype has also become less
Stereotypes: Mechanisms
x Usually broad and generalized:
E.g. Women are more knowledgeable of household chores than mechanics
x Can also be dependent on context:
IF _________ , THEN ___________
If at the mechanic, Sally will be passive, but if picking out curtains, than Sally
will be aggressive
Context will make a difference as to what we expect of a person based solely on
their group membership
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