Stereotyping and Prejudice

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Department
Psychology
Course Code
PSYB10H3
Professor
Ingrid L.Stefanovic

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Lecture 20: Stereotyping and Prejudice
Lecture Overview
x Group-Based Bias
Intergroup cognition
Intergroup affect
Intergroup behaviour
x Reducing Prejudice & Discrimination
Group-Based Bias
Psychological components
1. AffectÆprejudice ± the emotional attitude that we have towards somebody else
2. BehaviorÆdiscrimination ± when we act towards others in a certain way as a result of the
group the individual belongs to. This can be positive or negative
3. CognitionÆstereotyping and outgroup homogeneity
,QRUGHUIRUWKHVHWKLQJVWREHD³ELDV´WKH\KDYHWREHSXUHO\EDVHGRQDQLQGLYLGXDO¶V
membership in a group, and not their actions
Cognitive Component: Stereotypes
x Beliefs about the typical characteristics (usually traits) of group members
x Schemas used to categorize complex social groups
We apply a schema towards somebody on the basis of their group membership
Affective Component: Prejudice
x A hostile or negative attitude toward a distinguishable group of people, based only on
their membership in that group (not their actual actions)
Behavioural Component: Discrimination
x Unjustified negative or harmful action (usually, but can be positive) toward a member of
a group, simply because of his or her membership in that group
Stereotyping
Topics:
x Stereotypes Across Time
x Mechanisms
x Who stereotypes?
www.notesolution.com
ò Europe and their Defining
ó
x An example of how stereotypes have existed across time and throughout history
x $QH[SORUHULQWKH¶VPDGHDFKDUWDERXWDOOWKHSHRSOHLQ(XURSHDQGZKDW
characteristics one would have based on what country they lived in
x Examples:
German: open hearted
French: frivolous
Spanish: arrogant
x Stereotypes are not new, however the content of a stereotype is usually relevant to the
current time
Katz & Braly (1933) wòó
x The Princeton trilogy was a study of stereotypes over time, with stereotypes evaluated in
three different studies in three different decades
x Phase 1: In 1933 researchers collected racial stereotypes from college students
ò wvvó
x Katz & Braly (1933)
x GERMANS:
Scientifically minded (78%)
Industrious (65%)
Stolid (44%)
x JEWS:
Shrewd (79%)
Mercenary (49%)
Industrious (48%)
x ITALIANS:
Artistic (53%)
Impulsive (44%)
Passionate (37%)
x In many cases, there was a high degree of consensus (agreement) among the students
who participated
x Gave impetus to investigate the nature and content of stereotypes
The Princeton Trilogy
x Longitudinal Study of Stereotypes:
Katz & Bradley (1933)
Gilbert (1957)
Karlins et al. (1969)
www.notesolution.com
CHART ON SLIDE 12
x Conclusions:
Stereotypes are generally stable over time
Stereotypes are also contextually bound. The current cultural climate predicts
what stereotypes will occur
,Q$PHULFDV were stereotyped as industrious, but over time this
became less important. 7KLVZDVEHFDXVHLQWKH¶VWKHJUHDW
depression occurred, however as the economy boomed after WW2 (in the
¶VSHRSle saw $PHULFDs as more materialistic as opposed to
industrious
Jews were viewed as Shrewd for 2 decades, but this stereotype has since
become less prominent
,QWKH¶VWKHUHZDVDEXUVWLQWKHVWHUHRW\SHWKDWWKH-DSDnese were
extremely nationalistic. Why was this stereotype created at this time? It is
EHFDXVHGXULQJ::$PHULFDVZLWQHVVHGWKH-DSDQHVH.DPLND]H
SLORW¶VDQGIHOWWKDWDOO-DSDQHVHZHUHH[WUHPHQDWLRQDOLVWVMXVWOLNHWKHVH
pilots. Now that WW2 is behind us, this stereotype has also become less
prominent.
Stereotypes: Mechanisms
x Usually broad and generalized:
³7UDLW-EDVHVWHUHRW\SH
E.g. Women are more knowledgeable of household chores than mechanics
x Can also be dependent on context:
IF _________ , THEN ___________
If at the mechanic, Sally will be passive, but if picking out curtains, than Sally
will be aggressive
Context will make a difference as to what we expect of a person based solely on
their group membership
www.notesolution.com

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Description
Lecture 20: Stereotyping and Prejudice Lecture Overview N Group-Based Bias Intergroup cognition Intergroup affect Intergroup behaviour N Reducing Prejudice & Discrimination Group-Based Bias Psychological components 1. Affectprejudice the emotional attitude that we have towards somebody else 2. Behaviordiscrimination when we act towards others in a certain way as a result of the group the individual belongs to. This can be positive or negative 3. Cognitionstereotyping and outgroup homogeneity ,347/071479K0809KL3J894-0,-L,89K0\K,;094-05:70O\-,80/43,3L3/L;L/:,O8 membership in a group, and not their actions Cognitive Component: Stereotypes N Beliefs about the typical characteristics (usually traits) of group members N Schemas used to categorize complex social groups We apply a schema towards somebody on the basis of their group membership Affective Component: Prejudice N A hostile or negative attitude toward a distinguishable group of people, based only on their membership in that group (not their actual actions) Behavioural Component: Discrimination N Unjustified negative or harmful action (usually, but can be positive) toward a member of a group, simply because of his or her membership in that group Stereotyping Topics: N Stereotypes Across Time N Mechanisms N Who stereotypes? www.notesolution.com Z Z Europe and their Defining N An example of how stereotypes have existed across time and throughout history N 30[5O4707L39K0 82,/0,.K,79,-4:9,OO9K05045O0L3:7450,3/ZK,9 characteristics one would have based on what country they lived in N Examples: German: open hearted French: frivolous Spanish: arrogant N Stereotypes are not new, however the content of a stereotype is usually relevant to the current time Katz & Braly (1933) M ZZ N The Princeton trilogy was a study of stereotypes over time, with stereotypes evaluated in three different studies in three different decades N Phase 1: In 1933 researchers collected racial stereotypes from college students MLLZ N Katz & Braly (1933) N GERMANS: Scientifically minded (78%) Industrious (65%) Stolid (44%) N JEWS: Shrewd (79%) Mercenary (49%) Industrious (48%) N ITALIANS: Artistic (53%) Impulsive (44%) Passionate (37%) N In many cases, there was a high degree of consensus (agreement) among the students who participated N Gave impetus to investigate the nature and content of stereotypes The Princeton Trilogy N Longitudinal Study of Stereotypes: Katz & Bradley (1933) Gilbert (1957) Karlins et al. (1969) www.notesolution.com CHART ON SLIDE 12 N Conclusions: Stereotypes are generally stable over time Stereotypes are also contextually bound. The current cultural climate predicts what stereotypes will occur ,3207L.,38 were stereotyped as industrious, but over time this became less important. %KL8Z,8-0.,:80L39K0 89K0J70,9 depression occurred, however as the economy boomed after WW2 (in the 85045le saw 207L.,3s as more materialistic as opposed to industrious Jews were viewed as Shrewd for 2 decades, but this stereotype has since become less prominent ,39K0 89K070Z,8,-:789L39K08907049\509K,99K0-,5,nese were extremely nationalistic. Why was this stereotype created at this time? It is -0.,:80/:7L3J::207L.,38ZL930880/9K0-,5,3080.,2LN,]0 5LO498,3/10O99K,9,OO-,5,3080Z0700[970203,9L43,OL898M:89OLN09K080 pilots. Now that WW2 is behind us, this stereotype has also become less prominent. Stereotypes: Mechanisms N Usually broad and generalized: %7,L9--,80/8907049\50 E.g. Women are more knowledgeable of household chores than mechanics N Can also be dependent on context: IF _________ , THEN ___________ If at the mechanic, Sally will be passive, but if picking out curtains, than Sally will be aggressive Context will make a difference as to what we expect of a person based solely on their group membership www.notesolution.com Who Stereotypes? N Most people have knowledge of cultural stereotypes ;03L1\4:/43903/4780,8907049\50\4:N34Z9K,9L90[L898 N Factors affecting stereotype use: Egalitarian ideologies A moral system based on the idea that humans are all equal and should therefore all be treated equally Cognitive load How much resources you have to give to a situation will make a difference Egalitarian Ideologies N Automatic Stereotype Activation Stereotypes are automatically activated (when primed) and therefore more accessible, making us more likely to use them in this situation N Controlled Non-prejudiced Response If the person is egalitarian, the controlled process of the stereotype is activated That person will preconsciously reject stereotypical judgments even if stereotypes are primed This implies the person has enough resources to use the controlled response This only occurs for people who are truly egalitarian Cognitive Load N Greater use of cognitive resources N Greater the cognitive load = More reliance on stereotypes Cognitive Load & Stereotyping N Mendoza-Denton et al. (1999) N Method: Participants all high in egalitarian ideology Experimental Condition: Cognitive Load or not Load: remember this number 789328394 Low load: remember 543 #,909K0,JJ7088L;030884117L.,3207L.,38,3/ ,:.,8L,3207L.,38 Half the high load participants rated black people, the other half white people Half the low load participants rated black people, the other half rated white people www.notesolution.com
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