PSYB30H3 Lecture Notes - Unconditional Positive Regard, Psychodynamics, Abraham Maslow

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Published on 21 Apr 2013
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9 - Regulation and Motivation: Self-Determination Theory
Why talk about motivation and how is it related to personality?
- We want to know what drives people, and how people differ in this regard
- Psychodynamic theories are essentially motivational
o Talking about the different forces (esp the traditional Freudian theory and forces: sexual and aggressive) and how
they work together to form aspects of personality
- Different aspects: need for affiliation, need for power etc
o Motives that are reliable in individual differences
- Last week: Psychodynamic theory and how the different forces motivate behaviour
- This week: The self-determination theory stems from the humanistic Tradition
The Humanistic Tradition in Psychology
- Reaction to reductionism of behaviourism and pessimism of psychodynamics
o Psychodynamic: Looks at how to overcome the negative aspects of personality and the negative unconscious
motives vs ego
Struggles a person works to overcome that exist in their dark id and subconscious
o Behaviourist: personality consist of what you can actually see and that is personality
Doesn’t address anything unconscious and intrapsychic at all
Just talks about what you can see and directly measure
How they respond to stimuli in environment personality is developed by these responses and experiences
- Humanist: looks at the forward and upwards trajectory of human beings and life in general
o Is derived from psychodynamic and behaviourist views
- View individual as active system with an inherent propensity for growth and the resolution of psychological inconsistencies
o Active system: don’t look at the individual parts of a person but rather look at how the whole thing works together
The trait perspective looks at the individual traits and how they related to other traits not a system view
o Inherent propensity for growth: something that is a part of them that allows them to grow
o Resolution of psychological inconsistencies: if there are any differences between the two things the person
perceives they are very motivated to resolve that inconsistency in some way
Cognitive dissonance: when you have thought and feeling that are inconsistent with each other and how
you resolve that
- Optimal functioning allows both increasing complexity and integration
o More adaptable and more flexible
o Acquire more intellectual and cognitive skills to allow for more ways to understand things
o But at the same time there is this aspect of integration
Key Humanists
- Abraham Maslow
o The need level that you are at motivates your behaviour
o Self-actualized a person who has fulfilled their potential
- Carl Rogers
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o Unconditional positive regard: therapist in client-centred approach uses this
Not accepting of behaviour always but still accepting of the person
o Has humanistic characteristics to theory: Everyone has an actualizing tendencies but we need to figure out what is
blocking them from that path and then try to remove them
what is keeping them from growing and self-actualizing
o Contrasted with psychodynamic theory: just figuring out how to keep the negative impulses that are part of the id
at bay or how to resolve them
- Humanistic tradition: emphasizes responsibility, growth, increasing complexity
o Also that this self-actualizing tendency is inherent and present in everyone
Actualizing tendency: motive to actualize growth and bring about positive change
Self-determination theory Deci and Ryan
Three Fundamental Psychological Needs
- Important for people in wide range of culture
- Competence, Autonomy, Relatedness
Competence
- Feeling that you can reliably produce desired outcomes and/or avoid (-) ones
- Requires:
o Outcome expectations : Understanding of the relationship between a behaviour and its consequences
o Efficacy expectations: Feeling capable of successfully engaging in the behaviour
Autonomy
- Feeling that one is acting in accord with sense of self and be the causal agent with respect to actions you can cause things
to happen
- Sense of choosing, not feeling compelled or controlled
- Not independence can still be autonomous if have assimilated values of significant others
- Internally vs Externally Imposed Control
o Central issue in autonomy is the experience of freedom from pressure, regardless of who is imposing the pressure
- Internally informational vs internally controlling regulation
o Behavioural regulation from within is not necessarily adaptive
o Regulating own behaviour
in a controlling fashion
Leads to tension and pressure to perform
Does not help autonomy or competence
in an informational fashion
allows freedom from pressure and the experience of choice
Feel autonomous for sure; but also feel competent if you keep doing it and get better at it
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