PSYB45H3 Lecture Notes - Lecture 7: Gift Card, Operant Conditioning

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Published on 14 Apr 2013
School
Department
Course
Lecture 7: Increasing Behaviours through Operant Conditioning
Student Behaviour Modification
o Target behaviour: asking/answering questions during lecture (exact behaviour
going to change)
Goal/outcome: increasing class participation
o Target behaviour: read chapters and attend/watch lectures
Goal/outcome: improve study habits
Review positive reinforcers
o Tangible: gift card
o Consumable: candy, chocolate
o Activity: more breaks in class
o Social: praise, smile
o Feedback: you answered that question correctly
Positive reinforcers
o How do we ascertain what will be positively reinforcing to a group?
o Guess work
Age : extra TV time for kids, elderly person give money or recreation time
for learning computer skills
Gender: men vs. women
o What do students find positively reinforcing?
o Are we talking about programmed or natural reinforcers?
Enhancing effectiveness
o Sampling: let them try it, a little taste
o Modeling: show people how to get it, then they will do it
o Explaining or demonstrating the value: why it is reinforcing (tastes delicious)
o Public posting of performance: ranks, tokens
Ways to administer reinforcement
o Tokens (receive something, that build up to reinforcement)
Pros: only need one reward
Cons: can take a long time, what happens if there’s a tie, reinforcement
may not be worth it, have to find tokens (need resources)
o Continuous reinforcement schedule (reinforce every time person does the right
thing)
Pros: increase in behaviour really fast
Cons: need a lot of rewards
o Lottery (have the chance of reward if you answer a question)
Pros: only need one reward
Cons: random, some bias
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Document Summary

Student behaviour modification: target behaviour: asking/answering questions during lecture (exact behaviour going to change) Goal/outcome: increasing class participation: target behaviour: read chapters and attend/watch lectures. Review positive reinforcers: tangible: gift card, consumable: candy, chocolate, activity: more breaks in class, social: praise, smile, feedback: you answered that question correctly. Positive reinforcers: how do we ascertain what will be positively reinforcing to a group, guess work. Age : extra tv time for kids, elderly person give money or recreation time for learning computer skills. Ways to administer reinforcement: tokens (receive something, that build up to reinforcement) Cons: can take a long time, what happens if there"s a tie, reinforcement may not be worth it, have to find tokens (need resources: continuous reinforcement schedule (reinforce every time person does the right thing) Cons: need a lot of rewards: lottery (have the chance of reward if you answer a question)

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