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psychology notes (ch 10,11,12,14|)

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John Bassili

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Chapter 10 – Language The Building Blocks of Language – Language can be broken down into elements at several levels Sentences - “The Players talked to the fans” Phrases – The Players + talked to the fans Words – The + Players + talked + to + the + fans Morphemes – The + Play + er + s + talk + ed + to + the + fan + s Phonemes – Da + pley + ar +z + tak + t +tuw + da + f + a + n + z Phonemes – Clump together to create morphemes – Smallest significant units of sound in a language – Column of air from our lungs(containing sound waves) + pressure + energy – P+B phonemes – Bilabial Plosives: Both lips involved in (p + b) + (explosion) producing the phonem + explosion involved when pressure is held with lips + explosion produces sound – How they differ: At the point where your vocal chords produce voicing for P starts earlier than B – Alveolar Fricatives (s,z): Your tongue is placed on roof of mouth + there is a friction sound that produces sound difference -> vocal chords vibrate for Z and are vocalized whereas for S it is not * 40 phonemes in English but we only use 26 to capture sounds (some letters stand for different phonemes ex. “O” in Hot and Cold) Morphemes – Smallest unit of sound that denotes meaning in a language – Brought together to produce words – ex. Talked -> Talk + ed or Players -> Play(word) + er (one person) + s (many of them) Words (lexicon or vocabulary) – Come together to produce phrases – Lexical items are root words in vocabulary (our vocab is made of root words) – Content words – words that have meaning (nouns, verbs, adjectives, adverbs: players, talked, fans) – Function Words – There for making sense (pronouns, articles: the, to) Syntax or Grammar (phrases and sentences) – Words taught to us Phrases – The way in which users in a particular language put words together to make sentences Order of words + grammatical rule -> Not the same in every language Sentences – Can be analyzed in several levels Properties of Basic Language – Complex skill that humans excel at – Symbolic – Governed by rules Language is supposedly unique to humans for our ability to: – Use symbols to communicate – Arrange the symbols in a structured way – Generate an infinite number of combinations of symbols Contradictions: ex. Collie dog can fetch 200 objects by name + Chimp trained 4 years to recognize 3 words + Washoe a chimp who learnt sign language – Washoe could combine signs to make up sentences “baby in my drink” “gimme sweet” “time eat” “open hurry” and could identify objects using sign language – Nim Chimpsky (named after psycholinguistic Noam Chompsky) – Dr. Petitto tries to teach him sign language – They wanted to teach him sign language, send him out into the world and bring him back to see what he had to say, they failed Language: The Brain and Language Disorders Hemispherical Specialization – Language is mostly localized in the left hemisphere – More the case for men than women (fMRI scan/fundamental magnetic residence imaging xray) – When men engaged in the rhyming tasks, most activity occurred in their left hemispheres Localizing Language Centres Wernicke'sArea and Broca'sArea in Human Speech Process Estmple: Woman produces speech, male understands – 1 Area of the brain = Wernicke'sArea (comprehension, recognizing sequences of sounds and words) – Pathway sent forward to the Broca's area (speech production, person puts together their own thoughts for speech) – Moves to area 3(Motor cortex) that patrols the speech – 4 – Comes out for other person to understand Aphasia – Speech Problems – People can get lesions from brain trauma – Brain damage most often comes from STROKES – 2 types of strokes: Embolism/blockage stroke & – Hemorrhage Stroke: blood vessels break from too much pressure – When there is brain damage, you will get a speech impediment of speech known asAphasia – Non-fluentAphasia: Difficulty with speech production (ex Wernicke'sAphasia) – Fluent Aphasia: Difficulty understanding speech (ex. Broca'sAphasia) Broca'sAphasia – Laborious speech Agrammatism (no production or comprehension of complex grammar. No function words) Wernicke'sAphasia – (receptive aphasia) Poor comprehension. Produce fluent gibberish. Use function words but few content words. Stuttering – Involves disfluencies of speech at the motor end of speech production – Physical tension involved – Causes are unknown – Understanding is fine, but output end process is wrong – Prolonging or repetition of sound Autism – Deviant social development (delayed/ doesn't engage as a baby) – Delayed and unusual language development – Repetitive and ritualistic behaviour – Lifelong condition – Causes not well understood – ABA: Applied behavioural analysis therapy – IBI: Intensive behavioural intervention – Theory that autism was caused by vaccinations (FALSE) Asperger Syndrome (bill gates) – Poor social skills – Poor at reading non verbal cues – Preoccupation with particular subject of interest – Over sensitivity to textures, sounds, tastes, smells, etc. – Vocabulary can be extremely rich – Normal or above average IQ – Causes unknown/Disability appears to be heredity – Interprets things literally Tourette's Syndrome (Michael jay fox) – Neurological disorder – Involuntary and uncontrollable sudden movements or vocalizations (tics) – Onset of TS is usually before 18 – Cursing, grunts, groans, odd behaviour – Causes not fully understood, thought that abnormal levels of the neurotransmitter dopamine are involved – Medication can help control symptoms – Therapy helps patient and family cope with social impact Chapter 11 - Intelligence Autistic Savant (idiot) Syndrome – Rare cases where and individual with an IQ well below average has an exceptional talent in a particular area – Usually in: Calendar calculation, amazing feats of memory, mastery of several languages, great musical ability despite lack of training ex. Leslie (blind guy) can play piano by ear, George (rainman inspiration) could do calendar calculation and even knew the weather of each time Partitioning Intelligence – Spearman (1927) one of the first psychologists to theorize about human intelligence – Noted a correlation between test scores which he called the G(general) factor that underlines all cognitive functions – Noticed that the correlation between test scores was not perfect, and that people who did well on one test did not always do well on another – Concluded the variety of S(specific) factors – contributes to a subjects performance on intellectual tasks Identifying Factors through factor analysis – Scientists recently used statistical method called factor analysis – to further study underlying structure of intelligence – WechslerAdult Intelligence Scale – Scores on the WAIS tests are measured by three factors: a. verbal ability, b. short term memory, c. spatial ability – The score that is highest on the table by 0.5 becomes a relevant difference Modern Stanford-Binet Test Four different abilities (types of intelligence): 1. Verbal reasoning (vocabulary, comprehension) 2. Quantitative reasoning (quantitative tests, number series) 3. Abstract visual reasoning (paper folding, copying) 4. Short term working memory (memory for digits, sentences) – When a factor analysis was performed on Thurstone's factors, Cattell found that two factors underline the seven factors – He labelled these 2 factors: – Fluid Intelligence (gf) – Ability to see relations and patterns – Crystallized intelligence (gc) – Accumulated life knowledge ATheory of Multiple Intelligences – Theory proposed by Howard Gardner – Popular in the field of education – 8 types of intelligence: – Logical-mathematical, linguistic, spatial, naturalist, musical, bodily-kin esthetic, intrapersonal awareness, interpersonal awareness Heritability and IQ – One of the most enduring controversy in psychology is whether intelligence is mostly influenced by heredity or by environmental influences (nature vs nurture) – The heritability of a behavioural trait is the variability in the trait that correlates with genetic differences Conclusion from table 11.5 – Most estimates of heritability of IQ hover around 50% – meaning 50% of variability in intellegence is related to variability in genetic makeup Chapter 12 – Lifespan Development The Study of Development Focus on the life span, from infancy to old age: – Physical Development – Perceptual and cognitive development – Emotional and social development In the World after Birth – The moment a child is born, care is taken to ensure that he/she is healthy – Number of basic signs that reveal if everything is fine with the newborn or if special steps need to be taken to insure the good health or survival of the baby – The APGAR Score (Activity, Pulse, Grimace,Appearance, Respiration) Motor Development in Infancy – Reflexes that are essential for survival – Breathing, swallowing, sucking Reflexes – Some reflexes are adaptive or are left over from evolution – Rooting (turning head in direction of touch) – Palmar or Grasp (palm closes when touched) – Stepping (legs take steps when feet touch surface) – Moro or Startle (spreading of arms when let go) – Babinski (toes curl up when sole is pushed) – Swimming (paddling and kicking when face is down in water) Early Developmental Processes Some processes are fundamental to development: – Maturation (genetic program for growth) – Imitation (essential for learning) – Practice (essential for refinement and consolidation) – Habituation (promotes novel exploration) Sensory and Perceptual Development – Touch, taste, smell and hearing are relatively well developed at birth, vision less so – ex. Newborns: sensitive to pain; react to touch; have taste and smell preferences and communicate through facial expressions – can distinguish nearly all sounds in language – Vision: – can only focus at a distance of 20 to 30cm – at birth, infants perceive objects at 6 metres as well as adults perceive them at over 100 metres Critical Periods – There are critical periods during which the child must have certain experiences if perceptial and cognitive abilities are to develop normally “use it or lo
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