Chapter 11: Intellect 1/24/2013 9:20:00 PM
There are three stages in an offspring being born; the germinal
stage, the embryonic stage and the fetal stage.
During the fetal stage the cell began to grow rapidly and create a
insulated skin as well respiratory system and digestive system.
Not just food is that a women eats is damaging but as well as
anything she comes into contact with. Teratogens include
environmental poisons such as lead in the water, paint dust in the
air, or mercury in fish, but the most common teratogen is alcohol
Although infants can use there eyes right away, motor skill take
certain amount of time to developed. therefore they are born
with a small set of reflex’s.
There are patterns in which they develop their motor skills and
other ways one is top to bottom the other is inside to outside.
Motor generally operate on sequence not on timetable
Jean Piaget; wanted to understand if on top of them developing
motor skill if they could develop understanding and intelligence.
Infant learn how physical things behave by watching or doing it
themselves Piaget develop a theory called assimilation.
After an infant has relised the resulst of his actin piaglet called this
accommodations after their reaction they realized it was bad or
Infants don’t yet have realization of how the world works and there
Piaget said this is called the Object permance.--> some scientist
suggest that some infant have object permanence at 4 months.
Childhood has two stages peropertional stage, concert operational
Infants have better understanding of life better than Piaget stated.
Children who are concert can understand quaintly
Once children understand what brain repsent.
Preoperational children expect everyone to see what they see.
which also means that they don’t understand that people may not
know what they know
once children understand that not all people know what they
known and fill what they feel, the discover the theory of
mind. Children who don’t develop the theory of mind psychologist tend to
believe this is the root cause of autism. the second group of
children who leg behind the theory of mind is def children with
parents who don’t know sign language.
Theory of mind appears to be influenced by a variety of factors,
such as the number of siblings the child has, the frequency with
which the child engages in pretend play, whether the child has an
imaginary companion, and the socioeconomic status of the child’s
Between infancy and adulthood, children must come to understand
(a) how the physical world works, (b) how their minds represent it,
and (c) how other minds represent it.
cognitive development occurs in four stages: the
sensorimotor stage, the preoperational stage, the concrete
operational stage, and the formal operational stage
By exploring environments infants develop schemas.
Humans start developing desires.
Infants with a disorganized attachment style seem to be confused
about their caregivers, which has led some psychologists to
speculate that this style primarily characterizes children who have
There are three characteristic a Paiget noticed children develop.
1. children’s moral thinking tends to shift from realism to
relativism what is relative to the situation, they start
weighing the consequences.
2. Piaget noticed that children’s moral thinking tends to
shift from prescriptions to principles. they rules thisn
such a fairness and equality when making moral
3. Piaget noticed that children’s moral thinking tends to shift
from outcomes to intentions. What seems more wrong
and what seems more right
Between the ages of 6 and 13, the connections between the
temporal lobe (the brain region specialized for language) and the
parietal lobe (the brain region specialized for understanding spatial relations) multiply rapidly and then stop—just about the time that
the critical period for learning a language ends
A 2 year old child contains more synapses then an average adult.
The timing of puberty is harder than puberty itself.
Sexual education is allow teens to delay sex or at least be more
protected. people who take adesence are more likely to have sex
and not use protection.
Puberty is occurring earlier than ever before, and the entrance of
young people into adult society is occurring later.
As adolescents seek to develop their adult identities, they seek
increasing autonomy from their parents and become more peer-
oriented, forming single-sex cliques, followed by mixed-sex cliques,
and finally pairing off as couples.
young adults try to keep verbal information in working memory,
the left prefrontal cortex is more strongly activated than the right,
and when young adults try to keep spatial information in working
memory, the right prefrontal cortex is more strongly activated than
but this bilateral asymmetry is not seen among older adults, and
some scientists take this to mean that older brains compensate for
the declining abilities of one neural structure by calling on other
neural structures to help.
Older people focus on things in