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Detailed Chapter 7 Notes.

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University of Toronto Scarborough
Connie Boudens

TextbookLecture Slides Chapter 7: Surveys 1 WHO CONDUCTS SURVEY Surveys are a important method of studying behavior. They are usually large-scale. Surveys provide us with a methodology for asking people to tell us about themselves. Surveys are important way for researchers to study relationships among variables and ways that attitudes and behaviors change overtime. Surveys Can be used together with experimental research to generate better findings. We assume that people are willing and able to provide truthful and accurate answers. Response set: tendency to respond to all questions from a particular perspective rather than to provide answers that are directly related to the questions. (faking good or social desirability ? leads the individual to answer in the most socially acceptable way. People are more likely to lie if they do not trust the researcher. CONSTRUCTING QUESTIONS TO ASK Defining the Research Objectives research objective must be determined from the start, and only ask questions that are related to the pic. Types of Questions Attitudes and Beliefs: How do people evaluate and think about issues. Presence-Absence: Respondents check off which items in a list do or do not apply to them. (Yes or No) Single-Choice: ask respondents to indicate which one category applies. Likert-Type Questions: how much they agree or disagree with a statement on a 57 point scale. Always strongly agree on the right side with at least a 5 point scale, could be 5,7,9. Avoid negatives that can confused respondents. Vary strength of wording to produce variation in response. Rank-ordering Questions: Ask respondents to orderrank items. Facts and Demographics: Factual questions ask people to indicate things they know about themselves and their situation. Questions like age, ethnicity, gender, employment status etc... Behaviors: past behaviors or intended future behaviors. (How many times last week did you exercise? How many children are you planning to have?) Question Wording Simplicity: questions asked in a survey should be relatively simple. Double-barreled questions: avoid asking two things at once. Because it taps two potentially different attitudes. Loaded Questions: A loaded question is written to lead people to respond in one way. (Do you favor eliminating the wasteful excesses in the public school budget? vs Do you favor reducing the public school budge?) Questions shouldnt include emotionally charged words such as rape, waste, immoral,
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