Lecture 2 Continued
If greedy was up there, someone who prides themselves of being the opposite of being greedy.
They'd be quick to say NOT me. Someone who thinks neutral, it would take longer to say NOT
me. So we can measure this with reaction times.
The first study that ever used this: In 1977, Markus timed things with stop watches. She
invited students into the lab and had them complete a personality characteristic sheet. She
focused on traits such as independent and dependent. She measured how quickly people said ME
or NOT ME. She found support for a theory.
In the 90's did a Global Vs. Contextualized Self
Global : I am ________ [always think this no matter what]
Contextualized: I am _____ when _____ [like I am this way in this situation but this way in that
situation] Like for instance I am organized when I'm at school. I am disorganized. So I wouldn't
say that I am organized.
An important finding: If college students don't do well on this test they don't show much on their
self esteem going down. They realize that in this context you didn't do well but in another
context you did well. But if you do really good you don't really have your self esteem going UP
Important : We become a slightly different person in different situations.
Working Self Concept:
-A subset of your Self Concept that is presently accessible. It comes with priming and
accessibility. But even yourself concept is bound to change. So when your with your dad how
you are. It's any aspect of yourself that have been recently primed by context. However there are
certain traits that will ALWAYS be accessible and are called "central" aspects of self, so they
define who you are no matter what.
Self Concept: Is who you are and how you define yourself
Self Schema: How we think the self concept is organized in our mind ;through semantic
20 statements: Self Concept
Reaction time: Self Concept + Self Schema[ Think of me so it's going to be activated]
Self Concept Centrality:
Some aspects of the Self Concept are more personally important than others. "Central" aspects
are more accessible in the semantic network. How do we measure this? Give them a piece of
paper and has ME in the middle. Then list 20 traits and the closer you put them to the circle, the
more defining they are. The more closer to the ME, the more central.
Self Evaluative Maintenance: All your life you wanted to be a medical doctor. You go to uni
and your taking all these premed courses and it really matters to you how you do well. Then your
roommate who is also taking organic chem. and you get 75 and they get 91. This gets at you
because YOU want to be the doctor. You either distance yourself from your roommate OR you
like your roommate and let this thought disappear. People tend to be threatened when someone close to them outperforms them in a domain that is central to the Self Concept but not for non-
If the domain is central to you then:
distance from relationship or distance from domain.
If the domain is not central :
Self esteem boost, magnititude of self esteem boost proportional to closeness of relationship
Self Handicapping: Older and important finding.If you think you're going to do bad it
undermines your performance. Which feels worse? The one who studies and gets a C or one who
drinks gets a C. SO if you know NO MATTER what your still going to get C no matter how hard
you try, people purposely do stupid things so they can blame that for their C because it protects
their self esteem.
An experiment: Sheppard & arkin  Its suppose to predict future success but it really does.
One half students were told that this test matters and its worth everything. Other half students
were told it was for fun so they didn't care. This is the setup. All 100 are told that you can listen
to music while taking the test. Each headphone had sticker on it. All the tapes were the same but
which tapes are you going to choose the ones that help you or not help you? You would think
that students would choose the green stickers. Most choose the red sticker so the one that
impaired their performance so when they do bad they could blame it on the sticker.
Self Verification: The need to seek validation of one's Self Concept. It holds true even if Self
concept is (-). It's motivated by desire to be understood. BUT only if the traits are central to the
Glesler, Joseph and Swan --> Background : they were looking at people who were either
depressed or undepressed. People who are depressed that they have a (-) view of self and keep
thinking about (-) things. Method: Do you chose the person who says you rule or you suck. IF
something is (-) you want them to validate what you think about yourself.
- Do we have just one view of the self? No
- *independent self is driven by sense of who am i in contrast to the world?
Interdependent self**idea of who we are and who we might want to be one day
Possible selves Idea that we have self concepts of who we might become. It doesn't exist yet
which is why it's possible. like an ideal self. It can be good and bad things.
- Self discrepancy theory torrie Higgins- one of his biggest theories- you have 3 selves; 1 isst
actual self (who you are unrelated to any ideas of other possibilities/Who you are now), 2 is
ideal self- torrde believes you have one that is dominate in your life (this is the person you ideally
want to be), 3 is the Ought self (who others think you should be/Parents). Not multiple domains
within the self types. When there is a large discrepancy between actual and ideals self's results
in greater symptoms of depression. When big discrepancy between ought self and actual self
it results in higher levels of anxiety.
Self-esteem- self evaluative component of the Self concept. Not just i am this but i am this and it is good
or bad. Is overall level of good versus bad.
GLOBAL SELF ESTEEM- average level self esteem; how good do you feel about yourself. STATE SELF ESTEEM- Self-esteem that fluctuates based on situation/context. State self esteem is the
part of your self esteem that changes on a typical basis based on whats been primed. This type of self
esteem is supposed to change rapidly.
IMPLICIT SELF ESTEEM- skipped --
Sociometer theory -->argues that the need to belong is evolutionary adaptive and self esteem monitors
the likelihood of social exclusion. The idea of the Sociometer is like a gauge- internal monitor of social
acceptance/rejection- cannot directly test this theory.
Perceived regard- is how we believe we are viewed by others. We tend to underestimate how positively
others view us. How we view our self [Self view]. How you see your friend [Other view] How your
friends sees you [Perceived view]. It was found that the friend viewed you more (+) than how you see
yourself. But you still know this but still you underestimate how they see you.
SELF SERVING BIASES-
- Self enhancement- usually compared directly to self verification (very central traits; want ppl to
see you the way you see yourself). Tendency to see oneself as better than avg on favorable
- Social comparison- evaluation of oneself by comparing the self to others. Two types- one is
upwards comparison (when you compare to someone better off than you. Downward
comparison- comparison of the self to someone who is worse off than you- is very common.
Many ppl do it to make themselves feel better. Who we are as a function compared to other ppl.
Where does the Self Reside? The Self in the Brain- the self resides in the brain- the prefrontal cortex.
Two key areas that seem to be
important for Self processes.
- Medial prefrontal lobe- judgments about Self show more activity in this part of the brain.
- Right prefrontal lobe- self recognition (seeing yourself in a mirror and recognizing its you) diff
from previous bc this has to do more about perception. How do they do this? The study
suggested that some aspects of self processes do it in the right hemisphere of the brain . They
merged half faces with famous people and said who do you see? The left hemisphere brain was
not activated and saw themselves but the right hemisphere said the famous person. We have a
bias to our self.
SELF REGULATION- what is it? The strategies used to control (and regulate) your behaviour.
When do we engage in it? Usually when we are in pursuit of a long term goal -> MED
SCHOOL. So this is controlling yourself towards your long term goal. Monitor your responses to
environmental stimuli like emotion regulation. Like someone you hate says something rude
towards you but you know you dont give a shit about that person so you can't let it bug you.
- Delay of Gratification- the ability to forgo an immediate reward for a future reward-.
o Classic study: Walkter mischel The Bing Study- child has great edu but must
participate in standford Unis research on children- walter mischel wanted a reward that
would be appetizing to the child- kid goes into lab, seated at table with w/e treat the child
really likes- told they are told to sit in front of the table for 30 mins- if you were able to
wait the whole amt of time they would receive double the amt on the table- they were
given a bell that they could ring if they didnt want to wait anymore-
o Delay gratitude work- what strategies will help regulate ourselves better? Remember the
kid video at 6 years old who tried so hard not to eat so they could get DOUBLE o What is the long t