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Social Psych lec 4.docx

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Elizabeth Page- Gould

Social Psych lec 4  What is an attitude? o A like or a dislike that influences our behaviour toward someone or something o Affective: what you feel about something o Behavioural: what you are likely to do as a response of your attitudes o Cognitive: what do you think about something  What goes into an attitude? o Valence  How good or bad you think something is  On a continuum o Strength with which you hold an attitude  Types of attitudes o Explicit attitudes  The attitudes you can state in words  You are fully aware that you hold these  Stored in the form of a statement of which you are fully aware o Implicit attitudes  An association that you have between something and your concept of good or bad  Has to do with your semantic network  You may or may not be aware of these  Measured in terms of reaction times  Attitudes and behaviour o Attitudes and beliefs and behaviour both affect each other o Cognitive dissonance  A change in your behaviours changes your attitudes  Dissonance refers to an unpleasant feeling or arousal or anxiety when your behaviour is discrepant from your attitudes or your values  You experience dissonance when:  You experience contradictory attitudes  You need to reduce this tension  You change your attitude to reduce your behaviour  Study: they brought people into lab, had them do incredibly boring experiment, as they left the experiment, the experiment mentions they need people to be motivated for the task:  In 2 out of 3 conditions they ask participants to help them out with this  In one condition, experimenter says that they’ll give them twenty bucks if they tell person in the waiting room that it was interesting  In another, they got a loonie.  In the third they don’t give them anything.  They then got a call asking how enjoyable the study was (so this is our measure of people’s attitudes)  The $1 condition was much more enjoyable o Cognitive dissonance  Over justification effect applied here  Reappraisal  If you can sufficiently justify your attitude and behaviour, you don’t experience dissonance.  Post decision dissonance  Looking back at what you have done  Liking o A positively valenced attitude  Balance theory o To reduce cognitive dissonance o Desire to keep balance between ourself, other, and an issue. o Options when unbalanced:  Try to change friend’s attitude  You could change your attitude  You can change how much you like your friend  Attitude change o Persuasion  The altering of an existing attitude or the adoption of a new attitude o “Routes” to persuasion  Central route to persuasion  List of arguments and proofs  Appeals to intellect  Also giving the person the decision making time they need  Takes a lot of effort on both sides  Peripheral route to persuasion  Use indirect factors that don’t really have to do with attitude itself o Appeals more to emotions, social norms, etc.  Getting people to say yes: o Reciprocity norm  A social norm stating that we should try to in repay kind what another person has given us  The power of a gift  Attempt to stay equal  Can be taken advantage of  Ex free samples o Consistency  People will go to extremes to act consistently  If you know this, you can take advantage of this  Public commitments are powerful determinants of behaviour o Social proof  We follow the lead of similar others, and accept personal stories as a proof of a products promises o Liking  If you like someone, you are more likely to do what they want you to  Ex: mike Jordan likes Nike therefore I like Nike. o Authority/Credibility:  We are much more likely to be persuaded if we believe that the deliverer of the message is credible or in a position of authority o Scarcity  An item or an opportunity becomes more desirable as it becomes less available.  Persuasion strategies o Door-in-the-face  You first make someone refuse a large unreasonable request, then they are more likely to do a reasonable one. o
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