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Social lec 18.docx

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Department
Psychology
Course
PSYB10H3
Professor
Kevin Page
Semester
Fall

Description
Social lec 18 Social hierarchy: an implicit or explicit rank order of individuals or groups with respect to a valued social dimension. Implicit or explicit refers to we may be really clear of who is of higher status, or we might not know definitely who is at higher level. But we do not need to say that we are at higher level than you its just known-implicit Rank order, there needs to be at least 2 levels. 1 level of status or power above the other. Valued social dimension criteria used to rank people in social hierarchy. People are ranked according to what matters to the group who are doing the ranking. Social power: asymmetric control over valued resources in social relations. Based in resources that belong to an actor/social object. Whoever makes the decision an controls the resources is the most powerful. Power hierarchy: is one type of a social hierarchy and formed with respect to the amount of resources each controls. Your income level reflects your amount of social power. Social status: the extent to which an individual or group is respected or admired by others. Exists entirely in the eyes of oother people and inferred to you by other people. You can’t make your own social status. It is the other people who chose what your status is. Status hierarchy: a rank ordering of individuals or groups according to the amount of respect accorded by others. Changes as the amount of respect for the target changes. Power hierarchy will change when the resources and control over it changes. But status hierarchy can change when people loose respect. Types of hierarchy -Formal: explicitly set social roles, roles vary by rank order, higher rank order holds a greater value. Ex: work. People can move between the roles but the hierarchy always remains as they do so. They can move up to a different rank, but the hierarchy exists despite who fills in the role. Signs of formal hierarchy: job titles, reporting structures (this person reports to this person) and organizational charts (shows CEOS, then presidents etc.) The sources of value are control over resources and deference from subordinates. Respect to those who are higher than you. More control over resources more power. Typically an assumption of legitimacy to the hierarchy exists. We think that people who are at the top earned their role, but its always not true. There is questionable degree to which people really view the boss being legitimately in the place he is. Ex: the office. -Imformal: rank ordering of individuals or groups that develop organically on at least one valued social dimension. People just kinda create hierarchy out of it. No clearly delineated social roles. Ex: you are the cool kid, it might not be your title, but it is known you’re the cool kid. Sources of value in higher ranked positions: influence over group decisions, greater attention from others. Those that get the most attention are at the higher ranking. Attention, power, status: we pay more attention to those who are ranked higher than us. We pay less attention to lower ranked individuals. Attention is our social currency we can give to others. It can apply to both higher power and status individuals. Attention and power among humans Study: 2 people, potential to receive a prize. They tell you the confederate is gonna have power over giving you the prize or he won’t. showed bits of information about the confederate. People who were told that the confederates were to award them, spent more time concentrating on the information. Attention an power among non human primates Study: took a monkey all males, and shown images of 4 higher status males and 4 lower status males. They would see a picture flash on the screen they were trained to look 1 way to see fruit juice or the other way to look at the picture. I see the picture I wanna look at it more, they will look at the picture, they didn’t want to look at the picture they would look the other for juice. Wanted to see, when would you sacrifice juice and look at the picture. The monkey would give up the juice when they were shown the images of the monkeys who were of higher status. Would get juice when the pictures of others shown lower rank. How does hierarchy develop? Hierarchichal differentiation We are discriminating and differentiating between people, you in this role you in this role. The process through which individuals or group are sorted into rank ordered positions. We assume that if somebody is my boss, we assume that its because they are more motivated and skillful than I am. Sorting of individuals is a dynamic problem. Individuals can leave or enter hierarchy. People can be interviewed for jobs at a higher ranking position. or you can just quit your job. Its easier to leave formal hierarchies. People can move in between different ranks in formal hierarchies. People progress higher through the ranks, they can move down but its rare. Informal hierarchy develops spontaneously and rapidly. The reason for this is that impression formation is really quick, so that’s why differentiation occurs so quickly. It occurs within the first few minutes of an interaction. Because there are no clear set roles, there is a high agreement between group members about the rank order of each individual. Not clearly defined but everyone knows who’s on top and who’s not. -role of non verbal cues: study: read a personal injury case. Where the person could receive the max amount of money the case offered. The case was a very extreme case. Then participants were brought to a deliberation room with 5 seats around the table. 4 side seats and 1 head seat. They were asked to choose their seat. Confederate was assigned to choose head seat or side seat, he walked in first. Confederate argues for a low settlement. Results: considered lower settlement values when the confederate sat at the head seat and asked for low price. When he was sitting in the side seat and offered low they didn’t go with him and settled for more $ for plaintiff. When he was sitting in the head seat he was rated as being more confident, leader, and consistent, even though his behavior remained the same. Differentiation in informal hierarchy: informal differentiation differs widely. Basically depends on what the groups value. Those who like these activities more are cooler. The funnier they are ect. You cant go into a new group and know what will sift you to top or bottom. When you know the values of the group then you could see. Differentiation based on personality: individuals achieve higher ranks in a group to the extent they represent the defining feature of that group. We tend to love stereoptypical people. We like people who fit our expectations. The
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