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8 - Intrapsychic Foundations outline.docx

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Connie Boudens

8 - Intrapsychic Foundations – psychodynamic view Why study Freud? - We all "speak" Freud - Unconscious mind plays large role – but before him no one looked at it - Still a lot of ongoing research and theorizing that originates from Freud's research Driving Forces in Personality - Eros/libido: the life instinct o Does this by satisfying our need for hunger, thirst and sex - Thanatos: the death instinct o Consisted of aggressive forces, thoughts and actions; the desire to return to an inorganic state where they would have peace - He proposed that: human existence was a constant struggle between life and death instinct, between individual's desires and society. o Between forces that want to preserve the individual's life and forces that wish to end the life Structure and Dynamics of the Psyche - Tripartite model of the psyche: 1. Id: original and most primitive part  This is something everyone is born with  Even animals may have this 2. Ego: realistic aspect – satisfies demands of id and keeps it in check  The aspect that is in touch with reality and the world around us  To makes sure that the demands of the Id are met 3. Superego: internalization of society's values – consists of conscience and ego-ideal  Ego-ideal: the ideal person you feel you should be  Conscience: the rules of right and wrong - Think of this as a system – there is a limited amount of energy that flows between all three o Different parts of the psyche will dominate depending on the situation etc. Does the Structural Model hold up to empirical support? - No evidence about proposed division of parts - Ideas of conflict and behavioral compromise among forces that remain important Division of the Mind: Topographic Model - Conscious: things we are aware of - Preconscious: things that can be brought to mind if you want, but harder to access - Unconscious: things you aren't aware of o Completely inaccessible - Id = completely unconscious - Ego = all three - Superego = preconscious and conscious - The id and superego do not interact Defense Mechanisms – the ego defending itself When id and superego conflict this results in a response that you are not consciously aware of - Anxiety in ego caused by id-superego conflict - Unconscious aspect of ego attempts to defend ego from this conflict - Repression: impulse prevented from reaching consciousness - Suppression: conscious work taking place that pushes the impulse down - Sublimation: transforming id impulses to more acceptable ones - Projection: ascribing your own undesirable impulses to others - Rationalization: giving a "rational" explanation for the behaviour - Intellectualization: uncoupling thoughts and feelings about something - Undoing: attempts to nullify an action or thought - Reaction formation: converting an unacceptable impulse into its oppsite An Example of Reaction Formation: Homophobia ByAdams, Henry E.; Wright, Lester W.; Lohr, BethanyA.Journal ofAbnormal Psychology. Vol 105 (3),Aug 1996, 440- 445. Agroup of homophobic men and a group of non-homophobic men were exposed to sexually explicit erotic stimuli consisting of heterosexual, male homosexual, and lesbian videotapes, and changes in penile circumference were monitored. Only the homophobic men showed an increase in penile erection to male homosexual stimuli. Theory of Psychosexual Development - People pass through stages named for body part that is centre of sexual pleasure - Conflict/trauma results in fixation on this conflict o Results in some personality characteristics as a result of the fixation Stages of Psychosexual Development 1. Oral o Oral receptive character: dependent, too trusting, not competent o Oral aggressive character: envious, exploitative 2. Anal o Anal retentive character: obstinacy, orderliness, rigidity, frugality o Anal expulsive character: emotional outbursts, disorganization, generosity, rebelliousness 3. Phallic o Phallic character in males: reaction to castration fear – reckless, bold behaviours o Phallic character in females: continual striving for superiority over men 4. Latency stage o Nothing really happens o Everything sexual is dormant 5. Genital stage o Genital character: mature and capable of adult intimacy Problems with Freud’s Psychosexual Stages - Latency Period: o Freud: no significant development in id impulses of erogenous zone or human personality o Current thinking: important time of physical cognitive, social, emotional development and moral development  Alot of significant developmental changes, growing as a person, understand and solve problems, who they hang around with and who they confide in as they begin to be less dependent on the parents, - Stage Challenge Completeness o Freud: all stages must be successfully handled to navigate adulthood  To be able to have appropriate adult relationships in terms of interdependence and dependence o Current thinking: no clear support for predicted outcomes if all stage challenges not met - Biased methods and sampling o The people involved  had free time and money for therapy  had some form of trouble/ problem in life o This is not generalizable to the general population o He his ideas and using that as a working theory – he was looking for that – confirmatory bias - Inadequate developmental proof for Oedipal complex o Especially because it so complicated o Becomes hard to argue that everyone goes through that complex at some level - Gender differences in morality not supported o Freud said: that because females did not end up identifying with mothers they could not acquire values and moral - Personality fixed and unchanging o Freud said: once you were fixed at one stage your personality cannot be changed  most of the personality was fixed by the time you were 5 years old o more current evidence: there can be changes in personality and they can continue to develop and grow - Focus on sex and aggression o This is not the case How does Freud's model of mind and memory compare to contemporary ideas? - Evidence o Correct: conscious and unconscious continuum  There is flow and exchange of energy between them o Correct: unconscious influences on conscious  In terms of thoughts behaviours and feelings o Incorrect: unconscious not preoccupied with satisfying id impulses  Rather we found that it helps to regulate many aspects
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