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Psyb30 Lec 2.docx

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University of Toronto Scarborough
Marc A Fournier

Psyb30 Lec 2 Variation – that we differ from each other Some differences are inheritable (through genes) Selection – the observation that not only do we differ in our designs but our designs can have impact on how reproductively successful we are. Natural selection – the evolution of adaptive characteristics because of the survival benefits bestowed on those having them. (eg giraffes necks) Species typical Sexual selection - the evolution of adaptive characteristics because of the reproductive benefits bestowed on those having them. Products of the Evolutionary Process - Adaptations – Species typical evidence of special design. - Spandrels – By-Product. Do not directly contribute to adaptation, but are linked to an adaptive property/design. So it becomes incidently combined.(eg Bones are white due to calcium) - Random Effects (noise in the system) - Adaptively neutral. They don’t make a difference in reproductive system. Just passed along as noise in the system (eg earlobe shape) ‘Condensed records of Ancestral conditions’ Adaptations are NOT Optimal designs Why? - Time Lag – between when the problem happens and when the solution comes out (eg Hedgehog curling up) Adaptation will only be useful today if the present circumstances and the past circumstances were the same. - Local Optim
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