Psyb30 Lec 2
Variation – that we differ from each other
Some differences are inheritable (through genes)
Selection – the observation that not only do we differ in our designs but our designs
can have impact on how reproductively successful we are.
Natural selection – the evolution of adaptive characteristics because of the survival
benefits bestowed on those having them. (eg giraffes necks)
Sexual selection - the evolution of adaptive characteristics because of the
reproductive benefits bestowed on those having them.
Products of the Evolutionary Process
- Adaptations – Species typical evidence of special design.
- Spandrels – By-Product. Do not directly contribute to adaptation, but are
linked to an adaptive property/design. So it becomes incidently
combined.(eg Bones are white due to calcium)
- Random Effects (noise in the system) - Adaptively neutral. They don’t
make a difference in reproductive system. Just passed along as noise in
the system (eg earlobe shape)
‘Condensed records of Ancestral conditions’
Adaptations are NOT Optimal designs
- Time Lag – between when the problem happens and when the solution
comes out (eg Hedgehog curling up)
Adaptation will only be useful today if the present circumstances and the past
circumstances were the same.
- Local Optim