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PSYB32H3 (614)
Lecture 10


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University of Toronto Scarborough
Mark Schmuckler

Psyb20-lec 10 Who is a peer: what functions do peers serve -one of equal standing with another=peer, individuals who are operating on similar levels of behavioral complexity - we think of peers as children that are the same age, but realize that the definition is an activity based definition -they operate on the same level of behavior -age mates are much less critical and less directive of the nature of the childs behave, when you are dealing with a peer you are much freer to try out new behahvs and they learn lessons about themselves and others -they learn important lessons, ex: he hits me when I push him, important for children to learn -they teach children to understand appreciate perspectives of individuals just like themselves -interactions of children among diff ages are important as well -but these interactions are somewhat asymmetrical -usually the older child possess more power, and knowledge than the younger child -but its within these mixed interactions allow children to learn -help with social skills, leadership assertiveness, gives them the chance to direct things (older children) and younger can acquire more skills in these mixed peers groups -cross cultural research: found that equal age and mixed age interactions differ -more likely to see prosocial and nuture behave in mixed aged -equal aged you see diff setsof behave -older children can adjust their level of behavior to match those of younger -a 2 year old can take initiate when playing wit 18month to take leader role -enter school they know a great deal of same age and mixed aged interactions, and they have preferences of interacting and who they interact with depends on the goals they are trying to achieve ex:if they want someone to play with they will select someone their age, if they want help they will select someone older -you will never be older than your older sibling, so the nature of your interaction will always have that interaction, but among peers, ur status can change, peer interactions are flexible -peer interactions provide children with experiences that they don’t necessarily get with siblings -between 2and 12 children spend more time with peer group and less and less time with adults -they spend more time with age mates during this time, but along with age mates they spend more and more time with individuals that are operating on the same level of behave complexity -children by the first few years of life play more with same sex, and this gender segregation becomes stronger as children get older Peer important in dev -harlow raised a group of monkeys without peers -harlow monkeys exposed to age mates, they avoided them or if they approached them they were highly aggressive and anti social -peer contact seemed to be extremely important for normal social dev -then he raised monkeys with no mother but peers, and found that they dev abnormally, they were highly attached to peer group and became upset If they were separated from groups -peer contacts and family contacts are critically important -children raised in peer groups also behaved similar to the monkeys when they were separated they acted out aggressively The dev of peer sociability -sociability: the childs willingness to engage in social interactions -children are social, form emotional bonds and do this very early in life -babies don’t show interest in other babies in the first few months of life, and don’t interact until later 6 or 7 months -they will then smile and vocalize at each other share toys -peer interactions by 18months, they act more appropriate to each other -they don’t really get the fact earlier that the other child is a child, they will act towards them as tho they are a toy -18 months coordinated interactions with their baby peers, they will imitate each other smile at each other and organize this into games -24 months, they assume complimentary roles, tag chasing 1 and other -they will coordinate their actions together -social and cognitive skills contribute to this peer dev together -the caregiving these children receive, contribute in a positive way to the childs social skilss -19-24 months ordinate reciprocal interactions and at this age, children begin to understand about their own image in a mirror (mirror self recognition). This ability indicates a social level of understanding self and a level of coginitive competences -4-5 act for approval -they act to get approval from their peers -between 2-5 children are less likely to stand around and watch a game, they will become much more involved in the games that children are playing -the nature of the playing and complexity develops, becomes more sophisticated, they develop complimentary roles and agree on how to play the roles -children’s play develops in 3 stage sequence -non social play- unoccupied onlooker solitary play -parallele play: child plays next to another child in the same way but they don’t play together -cooperative play: children are now interacting with one another and now your getting tru social interaction in play Howes and Matheson: cognitive complexity of social interactions -modification of categories -they talk about nature of play dealing with congnitive complexity of social interaction -play can change and social interactions can change as a nature of the cognitive complexity -categories of play did occur in the sequence suggested -have a game moderate behavior in accordance to the rules of the game -understanding that you play a game relative to rules, you have to fit in with the behave or your partner ex: competitive game play in competition with ur partner Cooperation and competiion in childrens play -made them play a game with a partener in antoher room -half of them given rules to cooperative other competitive -the partner either played in a cooperative fashion or competitive -so cross nature of childs rules with partners -grade 1 children ignored their rules and adjusted their behavior to match partners, they couldn’t integrate 2 diff forms of behavior -grade 3 children could understand both sources of info, when the rules conflicted with mixed them, they played by their rules and partners -contacts between 6 and 7 begin to appear more in peer groups (not play mates, confederations of children, groups of children that interact on a regular basis and define a sense of belonging to each other, develop hierarchical structure) -preschool groups diff than elementary groups, children at elementary begin to maintain stable status, they can identify with the groups, they develop identities -chidlren begin spending more time with these groups of people than with any other people (cliques) -cliques are usually same sex, and share similar values and activity preferences -middle adolescence, boy and girl groups interact and form mixed groups (hetero) - often times you get several of these groups mixing together and form a crowd and define a certain social status -whats the purpose of cliques? They allow adolescence to express values and try out new rules and develop an identity that is separate from the family, its experimental for the kids -it paves the way for dating relationships, and same sexc cliques form a secure base away from hetero groups -more hetero cliques, they create opportunities to get to know other sexes in friendship, this leads to forming of hetero relationships Parental effects on peer sociability -what leads to being sociable to unsociable? Positive and negative relationships that occur at home -parents can influence peer contacts -where they live, neighborhood with other children playgrounds more opportunities for interaction with other children compared to not -parents act as booking agents, they can arrange playdates for their kids, they can enroll their children in daycares after school activities -children who attended good quality daycare, develop better social skills at an earlier age -when a parent arranges a playdate, they also the opportunity to monitor the nature of interaction and then influence the nature of the interactions, they can make sure play proceeds smoothly without conflict -those children whose parents indirectly monitor them are seen as more liked and had more successful interactions than the others -when children were disliked by their peers, the indirect monitor style was more harmful and hurtful -it was better for parents to directly monitor nature of children interaction -has to do with chiildnre liked by peers and disliked Peer acceptance -not all children are really liked as peer companions -what causes some children to be liked compare to others -socio metric evaluation: say what oyu like or dislike about cl
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