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University of Toronto Scarborough
Mark Schmuckler

PSYB20 LECTURE 1 Course website: Email Gelarah for q’s and sweta- must come in person know his middle initial  (on the textbook) NINJA TUNA “MR SCRUFF” playlist 2008 Dishonest John – burning your house down “the Jim jones Revue” High horse - burning your house down “the Jim jones Revue” Foghorn Big len Premeditated Burning your house down Jim jones review  British band  2010-2011  basic garage music  2 influences o very old classic rock Richard type of sound (he finds interesting) o classic Detroit motor city garage city  finds it interesting bc of the energy that comes of it history of developmental psychology I. Introduction A. Why study developmental psychology? I. You could apply it bc of personal experiences, you may have a child II. Seeking answers to own experiences B. What is development? II. Human development in historical perspective A. Childhood in Medieval Times B. Childhood in the Reformation III. Philosophies of the Enlightenment A. John Locke (1632-1704) and the British Empiricists B. John-Jacques Rousseau (1712-1778) IV. Scientific roots of development A. Charles Darwin’s (1809-1882) evolutionary theory B. G. Stanley Hall’s (1846-1924) recapitulationist theory C. Lewis Terman and Arnold Gesell th D. Mid-20 century theories DEVELOPMENT AND THE DEVELOPMENTEL SCIENCES What is development? • Development involves the systematic changes that occur in individuals between the moment of conception and the moment of death. • Systematic – implying dvlpd changes are somehow orderly – have pattern; do this to distinguish btw real behavior changes VS temporary changes • Child dvlp is disciplinary field involving developmental science • Aspects of dvlp • Biologist • Neurologist • Psychologist • All of which are interested in development of human/ animal development What is the science of development? • Developmental science versus developmental sciences • Interdisciplinary nature of the study of development CHILD DEVELOPMENT IN HISTORICAL PERSPECTIVE  In order to understand the field is how it exists today  we must understand what children were like and its ideas in a scientific sense in a historical aspect  Modern science today  view childhood as an important central part of our lives needing shelter, need great deal of care, have laws to protect them from dangerous toys, parents, adults etc.  Believe children should be entitled to free public education, TF we view children as important. Was it always like this in a historical sense? Childhood in Medieval Times (6 - 15 centuries) • The view of children • Seen as a separate period of life • Artists depict children as wearing loose clothing, playing • Childhood was seen as different relateive to adults • Teenagers were not as mature • By 14 century • Books, manual were offered on how to raise children • Health care, feeding, clothing, games, laws that recognize that children needed protection from ppl who were dangerous • TF in medivial times • They believe children as vulnerable beings • Religious writings had contradictory notions of children basics nature • The contradictory nature of childhood • Religious text  discussing children as pure + innocent • Simultaneously, also discussed as being possessed by devil  who have sinned Childhood in the Reformation (16 – century)  rise of puritan belief • The influence of the Puritans • The idea of “original sin” • View of childhood became more negative • Children were not seen as pure, born evil, TF role of parent was to civilize + to restrain children • Development of harsh practices to retain children • Children were wearing more stiff clothes all of which to keep them from natural evil clinations. • More accepted behavior toward children  beatings (even from teachers) • Child was born w/ original sin TF had to teach the child • Led to growth of using “reason” when teaching children rather than physical force • Parents were asked to train child w/ reason for self control • Development of knowing the balance between permissive and harsh tactics • 17 century • period of enlightment • these philosophies had diff conceptions of children • more humane than those of the past • ex: john Locke • his writings devoted to a P.O.V  child was viewed as a blank state (tabuls rasa) PHILOSOPHICAL ROOTS OF HUMAN DEVELOPMENT John Locke and the British Empiricists • Rejected concept of innate ideas • Mind of infant as a Tabula Rasa • Children were not born evil • Did not have these innate ideas of original sin • Born w/ nothing  no ideas  TF blank slank • All knowledge that they obtained for character was from experience on daily premises that shaped their personality • Parents needed to be rational  you could mold the child to how they saw fit based on careful tactics • Knowledge gained through experiences • Believed in appraisals and award (bribery) rather than punishment • More likely to adopt the things you ask • More effective • Should be change of harsh to treating children w/ kindness + compassion • Led to development of 2 ideas • Saw development as a continuous development • There is not a single pathway to healthy development according to locke  similar to “plasticity” • He also suggested that children is passive, actively changing and structured • Two important conceptual points 1. Idea of c
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