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Lecture 2

Lecture 2 (detailed & concise).docx

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Michael Inzlicht

PSYC12H3 Lecture 2 – Origins of Stereotypes Example: Discrimination with Car Sales Experimental Controls – Match people for:  4 Twin Testers o Age, education, attractiveness, dress, script, same dealer, same car Ayres & Siegelman, (1995)  Black male got the highest initial quote for a new car (more than twice of white male) o $1000 difference in car quotes, male white (stereotyped most wealthy + offered lowest price for car quote  twice the benefit)  Why would salespeople: o Ask more money from women?  Women don’t know much about cars  Women are higher in agreeableness (nicer) compared to men o Ask more money from Blacks?  Blacks are assumed to be less educated, and less sophisticated Movie: True Colours  Discrimination and stereotypes happen on different aspects in life, including job application, house renting, shopping, etc.  Blacks are: o being stereotyped as lazy when trying to apply for job o being rejected when trying to find apartment/ job o being ignored by sales ppl during shopping, no one to serve o being suspected by police while walking on the street in night  Would this happen in Toronto? o In a multicultural society, it still happens to a certain degree o Ex: sales trained to spot potential shoplifters (black ppl dressed a certain way)  May not be aware of stereotype if you are not a visible minority yourself ORIGINS OF STEREOTYPES: COGNITIVE  Our minds categorize objects as a method of learning (whether or not it fits into our existing schemas)  Create order out of our chaotic social world Mental Categorization  Hassidic Jews: Black hats, black suits, beards, ringlet “sideburns”, religious  Why categorize? o Infinite number of stimuli in environment (knowing what to do with them after generalized) o Limited capacity cognitive system o Essential part of learning; cannot eliminate it (using data we collect to make inferences) o Occurs spontaneously (don’t need to think about it) o Ex: Without effort, intentions ppl naturally sorted convo based on men and women voices Categorization & Stereotypes  Stereotypes are traits (set of characteristics of a certain group of ppl) associated with category  Can be useful in making predictions o Ex: Jews are religious & study Bible. If you had a question of the Old Testament, you would go up to a Jewish person in the room. (Without even knowing anything about this person)  Are based on a “kernel of truth”  Are fast & efficient  Problem: they are also over-generalizations; especially when applied to an individual Groups  Categorize world into in-groups & out-groups (through identities)  In-group: Groups to which we belong o Can have multiple in-groups (ex: Canadian, Chinese, Toronto, Student, U of T) o Some groups are more permeable (school), while others are not (gender, race)  Out-group: Groups to which we do not belong o Ex: Not Christian, not American, not Male,  This simplifies social worldUs vs. Them o Easier to navigate society (ppl like me vs. ppl unlike me) Consequences of Groups:  Categorizing accentuates inter-group differences (can be problematic)  Intergroup Bias: Tend to think positively of in-group o Our groups are an extension of us, so we ascribe positive characteristics to our group o Even minimal groups— ex: camping team wars (shared goal= winning) o Ppl want to feel good about themselves, therefore will think positively about the group they belong to. And think negatively about the other groups.  Outgroup Homogeneity: Tend to think of out-groups as all the same o Ex: Indian
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