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Lecture 7

PSYC12 Lecture 7

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Michael Inzlicht

PSYC12 Lec 7 Stereotype Threat I - At risk of confirming negative stereotype about a group Movie - Cognitive, personality tests - Projective tests ( like Rorschach) reflect your innermost thoughts - MMPI – answer true or false to many statements  personality characteristics are derived from these statements - Alfred Bennet – first workable test. Tested intellectual performance of school children to differentiate retarded children and “normal” ones o Were only a measure of performance - Statistics were used to say blacks and immigrants were inferior - 1916, Louis Turnman made the Stanford-Bennet intelligence test o Made IQ – intelligence quotient  Mental age/chronological age x 100 = IQ - Racial bias in aptitude tests o Curtis Banks – says it needs to measure how well a person does  E.g. how well they will do in college – should predict person’s ability o Need to assess how tests are used/misused - Stereotype threat o Studies the effect that labelling and stereotypes have in a given situation o Situational threat o Could be judged based on an identity you have (race, sex, etc.) o E.g. a woman taking a standardized math test – frustration causes the stereotype to become relevant (that she is a woman) as an attributation to performance  This makes the experience of taking the test different for a male and different for a female o Brought women and men into lab that were good at math and give a difficult math test. Predicted that women would do worst because they would be under stereotype threat. Results reflected this.  Taking threat away (tell them, that it is a test not capable of differentiating between men and women) caused women to do better on the test - Spatial ability test – o Found that there is little correlation between this practical intelligence and spatial o Intelligence  ability to adapt to an environment and work effectively in it o found that when you interview highly successful people, the key to their success is NOT what they learn in college, it’s what they pick up on the job Group Differences … Major & O’Brien, 2005 - with Asian/White difference – there is a stereotype that Asians are better at math o could be a positive stereotype for a minority group - with Black/White – people were less willing to say there is a difference in intelligence - Stigma model o Important to remember: people have a decision if they are going to make a threat or not o Product: volitional/non-volitional responses Male-female math performance difference - Favours males – magnitude favouring males keeps getting higher o First favours girls in elementary and changes when people get older - Data is old - Boys tend to do better than girls on SOME tests Black-white IQ distribution - Standardized tests, based on IQ o May be biased - Main point: these curves largely overlap – for the most part are the same - Also see a difference: favour whites over blacks o Are averages – cannot tell anything about anyone based on averages - Why do we have this? Activity - Sex: Women may have been given less time being taught math - Differences could be due to differences in bringing up – type of education, etc. - Distribution of men-women in math: a lot of men are good at math but a lot are also bad; women tend to cluster in the middle - Things that attract women (jobwise) are interpersonal ones. May not be bad at math, just might not like a career in it - Race: Tests could have been biased towards European-Americans o People giving tests are usually white males (majority group)  Might reflect their values and views Origins of intelligence? - Nature vs. nurture o Nature: biology, predisposition o Nurture: environment, upbringing, etc. Genetics - Intelligence is highly heritable o If you have smart parents, you will likely be smart o If you are smart, siblings are likely to also be smart - High correlation between parents IQ and children’s IQ o 0.47 - Correlation between parent and any other child (someone else’s) = 0 o No correlation between unrelated people - Related people have similar upbringing also; may not JUST be genetic Twins - Monozygotic – share 100% of genes - Fraternal – no different than other siblings o Have ~50% shared genes with twins – same as siblings - IQ of identical twins is more similar than fraternal twins - Identical twins also have a more similar environment than fraternal twins o Identical twins are treated very similarly because they look the same o Usually dressed the same - Not great studies because the variability of living in same house - How about twins that were adopted by different families? o Identical twins reared apart are more highly correlated than fraternal twins o Reared apart is important because it shows they are brought up in different environments Adopted Children - IQ of adopted children is MORE SIMILAR to their BIOLOGICAL mother than adopted mother Environment - Environment plays a big role - IQ of identical twins reared apart is less related than identical twins reared together o When they have a shared environment, they are more alike than when in different environments - When reared apart, share less of the same environment than when reared together - IQ of fraternal twins is more related than IQ of siblings o On average, regular siblings share 50% but fraternal twins share same amount o Fraternal twins grow up in similar environments – are brought up at the same time  Siblings grow up together but at different times - IQ of 2 adopted children  more similar to one another than to others o Genetic relation is 0 on average BUT IQ is similar - Impoverished environments are related to lower IQ o Opposite is also true – people in enriched environments usually have higher IQs Nature vs. Nurture? - Both play a role in intelligence - Genetics certainly play a role o More general role o Heritability index = 0.5 - BUT if within-group differences have a genetic component, perhaps between-group difference has genetic component too o If 50% of intelligence is determined my genes, then 50% of differences between whites and blacks is 50%? - Between group differences may be caused by different factors than in-group differences Within vs. between group differences - There is a bag of seeds, variability in seeds and height of plant from seeds is determined by genetic component  biology - Assume that there is variability in the seeds and is randomly scattered - Have 2 kinds of soils: o One good o One bad - See that there are differences in how high plants grow - Due to genetics (quality of seed itself) - CANNOT say that the reason the right plants are lower on average than left plants is due to genetics only – there are other factors (between group differences) o Like comparing apples and oranges - Though genes have a factor in determining how smart someone is, the environment can explain group differences more than genetics do - Do not know to what extent genetics and environment play a role in between group differences Does the difference exist? - “intellectual performance” o Whether biased or not – reveal robust differences - BUT what does this difference mean? o Looking at black-white mean verbal SAT gap o Gap was as high as 120 points and kept getting lower over the years o Few things to note:  Rapid change in performance over time  Genes do not change that quickly – change at a glacial pace  Means environment is playing a role Are the tests unfair? - The tests are culturally biased - Biased against non-white people OR do not predict the same thing for whites/non-whites - 2 types of biases: o External bias  Generalizability question  Does it predict anything for people and does it predict the same thing for different groups? o Internal bias  Content of test itself  Is content socially biased so some groups will do better on the test Bias graph (environmental/external bias) - Can do really well, medium or low level on SAT test - Intellectual test performance at any one ti
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