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Lecture 3

PSYC21 - Lecture 3.docx

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University of Toronto Scarborough
Carly Prusky

PSYC21 – Lecture 3 Prof’s Speech - Purple Assignment 1 - Find opposing articles, no meta-analyses, dissertations, or theses - Must be published between 2000-2013 - The articles can focus on the same phenomenon, but have different hypotheses, or have different results but studied the same thing, etc. o They have to be similar, but comparable - Topics: romantic attachment, parenting style, self-regulation, communication, conflict, etc. - Brief introduction – tell the reader what the topic is, define key concepts, no personal pronouns - Summarize each article briefly – purpose of study (1-2 sentences), hypotheses, predictions, participants, state the measures, manipulated variables, explain results (1-2 sentences), how did they explain their results? - Compare – did you find one article more interesting than the other? What do they add to your topic? - Summarize only 2 articles, but more than 2 can be used for background information - Don’t directly quote articles Slide 2 – Aspects of biology that underlie social behaviour - Hormones – estrogen, testosterone, dopamine - Brainwaves – how the brain functions with different stimuli, usually measured with ECG, looking at the patterns of the waves - DNA - Physical appearance - Reflexes – which often form in infancy - Unconditioned responses – something that brings something out of you - Differences in temperament Slide 3 – Biological “Preparedness” - From biological rhythms (e.g. sleep-wake cycle) to social rhythms o Acquisition of biological regulatory skills leads to interactional synchrony o Development of biological rhythms help babies deal with the time-based nature of social interactions - Babies are prepared visually for social interaction o In faces, babies are interested in the eyes – big eyes are more attractive, as well as more symmetrical faces o Figure 3.1 – what babies focus on (found through eye tracking experiments) - Auditory preparation: auditory system is well developed before birth o Infants prefer high-pitched, exaggerated voice o By 9 months, the child is attuned to native language Slide 6 – Biological “Preparedness” - Smell, taste, touch – babies are attracted to smell of breast milk, hence attachment to mother o Newborns can discriminate among different odours and tastes and prefer those that adults find pleasant o Prefer mother’s smell  Facilitates development of relationship o Sense of touch develops early  Touch has a soothing effect o Deprivation of touch  Lack of touch has negative effects on babies/normal development – re: reesus monkeys, wire vs. cloth mom - All help to develop social interactions Slide 7 – Biological “Preparedness” - Beyond faces and voices: primed to be a social partner o Infants prefer face to face play to other activities  They are able to learn that adults are responsive to them  They can control others’ behaviour and their emotional state  They can alter the course of the interaction  Learn turn-taking sequences  Rules of social exchange – what is important, what do you learn o Capable of regulating interactions with gaze  If too stimulating, infants turn away, cry, or distract themselves o Some infant-parent dyads have difficulty  Cocaine exposed infants, depressed mothers - Evolutionary theory o Preparedness is adaptive and useful for ensuring the survival of the human infant and more generally, the species o Infants are biologically programmed for social interactions that ensure that they needs are met – they want to feel safe and secure o Modern evolutionary theorists assume that development depends on being born into and reared in a specie-typical environment that supports adaptive behaviours such as the ability to send, receive, and understand social messages  Theorists - good-enough parents – doing enough so that they child is able to develop typically  Not necessary to go above and beyond, child can reach goals with just enough Slide 9 - Brain o Cerebrum – allows for attributes that make us human o Cerebral cortex – seeing, hearing, moving, thinking Slide 10 – Neurological bases - Growth spurts in infancy and childhood o Growth spurts are rapid o Newborn brain – ¼ of an adult brain o 6 month old brain – 1/3 of an adult brain o 2 year old brain – ¾ of an adult brain - Visual cortex o 3 months – look longer at facelike vs. non-facelike stimuli o Experiment: showed children images of 3 circles (in 2 rows)  1: row 1, 2 circles, row 2, 1 circle  2: row 1, 1 circle, row 2, 2 circles  1 – infants looked at this image more because it resembles a face  2 – confusing for the infant - Auditory cortex o 18-24 months – language development o 18-24 months – language starts to develop; start to develop primary language o Infants are universal listeners – they can pick up slight differences in languages - Prefrontal cortex o 5-7 years – development of executive processes o Allows for engagement in conversations o U
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