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PSYC39H3 (172)
Lecture 11

Lecture 11.docx

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University of Toronto Scarborough
David Nussbaum

Lecture 11-Nov 25 Defining Aggression and Violence • aggression o "any behaviour directed towards another individual that is carried out with the proximate (immediate) intent to cause harm" • violence o aggression that has extreme harm as its goal • Risk assessment o 4 aspects  how severe are the consequences  what do you do to minimize the risk e.g in china, if people have a cold, they wear a mask so that they do not spread the germs Prevalence of Violence • 1 in 8 criminal incidents in Canada involve interpersonal violence o but only 33% of violent inciddents are reported to the police • highest reporting for: o robbery o physical assault o sexual assault Victim Characteristics • victimization similar for men and women • men more likely to experience non-sexual violence o women more likely to experience sexual violence • 51% of violent crimes committed by someone victimsknow o 44% by strangers • higher rates of victimization associated with: being young, single, often going out in the evening, living in cities o more violence in cities than in small towns where everyone knows each other Consequences for Victims • physical injury • difficulty functioning in everyday activities/PTSD • anger • feeling upset, confused, frustrted • feeling fearful Hostile vs. Instrumental Violence • hostile aggression o impulsive reaction to real or preceivved provocation or threat • instrumental aggression o premeditated and aimed at achieving some secondary goal o e.g. mugging in order to get purse or money etc o there is only enough violence to get what one wants, once achieved, violence is terminated • some acts of aggression have elements of both • different types of aggression Explaining Violence • Social learning theory o aggression is learned through  direct experience  observing others o aggression is learned through social interaction o behaviour is shaped by its consequuences (reinforcement or punishment) • General Aggression Model (GAM) o integration of a number of smaller, more specific theories of aggressive behaviour o components:  inputs (personal and situation)  routes (cognitive, affective, arousal states)  appraisal  decision processes • Evolutionary psychological perspective o  young men-violence as means to increase status, resourrces, mating; violent behaviour limited to adolescence and young adulthood  competitively disadvantaged men-ability to compeete in prosocial ways is limited; life-cour
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