Class Notes (1,100,000)
CA (650,000)
UTSC (30,000)
Sociology (2,000)
SOCA01H3 (600)


Course Code
Malcolm Mac Kinnon

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Random sample--> 500 subjects:
Lower class 3-5
working class 6-15
middle class 16-25
upper class 16-30
-occupation 1-->10
-education 1-->10
-definition of stratification: "the process of which people or categories of ppl are
ranked on the basis of socially differenciated characteristics is known as social
-acheivement based--> focuses on individuals, a person alone. your indiviudal accomplishments.
-caste systems--> descriptions, indalgomy. (marriage within the group.
- ascription-->found in aparthid societies, in traditional societies, (pre modern societies)
---> traditional societies, gone after industrial revolution.
--->aparthid--> based on race, segration (races espescially, Africa black-white, US as well,
education was segrated as well, housing (areas where ppl can live, governed by the law, tells you
where you are allowed to live, find in restaurants, hotels, theatres, even drinking fountains.)
-when you are segrated, comes at birth, cant help it, you are inferior, leads to prejudice attitudes of a
group (most often negative)
-discrimination--> deny people certain things based on race
-ethnicity: judge people because of groups they belong too.
-another example of ascription: gender, females or males (females were not expected to go to
univeristy in 1950's

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-caste society: peasantry, (hindu caste system(dont think of hindu only as caste society) all tad.
societies are caste societies)
closed and opened societies:
-move fro lower to higher societies, how? individ. achievement,
-open fluid societies--> achievement
-closed fliud societies-->ascription
-stereotyping, prejudging, two way street, (inferior group gets negative assignment, judging) (higher
groups get positive judging, stereotyping)
-achievened status, gender largely relevent. --> social evualation(how society evaluates you)
-social evaultation shapes you, wealth, status,
-personal achievement--> positive social evaluation. (university student status--> positive social
evaulutation, because it is earn/achieved. (achieve in the market place--> based on how good you are
in business, good you are in market niche, you can do well; athletics, entertainment, arts.
-achievement refers to not who you are but what you can do.
-Toronto star: published an article with connection with too many asians in higher education.
-too many of a group achieving the same thing, its over represented.
-open and closed strat.: open-->achievemnet, individuals, closed: treating ppl on way of ascripted
-open soctey book, mclevin, --> modern evaluates based on individual achievement, trad. ascription.
-diff b/w modern and trad.: degree, and not one of kind.
-marx based class on economic standing solely.
-now: class measured on three things: education, occupation and income (achieved all athree)
-the score the indivudal gets based on 1 - 10 called variables.
all related together--> interelated to each other.
-income high, likely hood occupation is high, and so is education. (not always necessarily however,
sports income high, education normally low)
-500ppl by chance, are strung along continum, how do you measure education, basis of pretiage the
education has, you can then give the person a score of 1-10, then continue on for all the three

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categories. lowest score, 3, highest score 30. after scoring people, draw line thru the continum, and
where youdraw the line, you identify the class, the indivudlas are associated with, lower, working,
middle, and upper class.
-sociology associated with social aggregates.
-rates of mortalitity, higher in working class than in upper class (lower)
-infant mortality(higher, death in first 6 months)
- less emphasis paid to education in working class families, on educational achievement in edu
environment, on reading, on reading books( less books arnd the house, parents reading less arnd the
house, dont provide as proper roles to achieve higher in school) tv viewing habits vary by class.
-jerry springer--> higher in working class, jersey shore.
-class does have an impact, consequences abt social class: massive amount of research done one this:
-quality of life: sometimes is called, life chances, how are they influenced by class? look at
distrubutuion of happinesss, varies by class, less money, tougher life is.
-chances of happy healthy properous existance declines as you move down the social
hierarchy, even in ON where theres health coverage for everybody, lower classes have higher
mortality, despite the fact that they have access to physiciians and health benefits, mroe likely to
suffer from mental disorders.
-people higher in social heierarchy--> more stress, other way arnd actually. lower end have
more, because they have little control over theyre lives, and generally associated with their health,
ppl in higher hierarchy have more control over their lives.
-white collar jobs--> more control over their jobs compared to blue collared jobs
-why is the case lower class have mroe health problems, lack of interest/knowledge concerning to
health issues, tend to be more fatilistic, (believeing in fate, i cant control my health thinking)
-higher classes, concerned abt their health, concerned to prolong their life, because theyre life is
nicer, poor not so much, want to die quicker, either eat too much or starvation. nowadays ppl in lower
class tend to be more over weight, people in higher class have more health sensivity, lower class tend
to smoke more frequently, harder drugs, and heavey alcohol use, also experience more dangerous
working conditions(factory jobs, mining, ocean fishing, logging) compared to white collared people
working conditions,
class as it related to lifestyle:
-consumption patterns--> intend to go into marketing or advertising its good to take courses in
stratification and social class as a sub culture, helps you understand the differences between the
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