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Lecture 2

Lecture #2

3 Pages
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Department
Sociology
Course Code
SOCA01H3
Professor
Sheldon Ungar

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Thursday September 17, 2009 ± Lecture 2 Sociological Theory
Today: Read BRYM Chapter 1, BRYM Chapter 12
-DURKHEIM AND SUICIDE
-READ IN TEXTBOOK, VERY IMPORTANT
-Unlike psychology and philosophy, sociology looks at suicide from all points of views.
-To sociology, suicide appears to be an anti-social, individual act.
-However, Durkheim showed that suicide rates:
1. Decreased with social solidarity.
2. Increase with anomie.
Social Solidarity
-Defined as ties with other people.
-Ex. Family, friends, etc.
Anomie
-Normlessness: social change as producer of anomie.
-Defined as lack of usual social or ethical standards in an individual.
-Ex. debt in family, market crash, unemployment, new job, etc.
Applying to Men vs. Women
-Women have more social solidarity.
-Men have more anomie.
-Therefore, higher suicide rates among men.
-LOGIC: If suicides were just result of individual depression or mental illness, they would NOT
vary systematically by group, time, etc.
Applying to Young vs. Old
-Young have more social solidarity.
-Young and old both have fair amount of anomie. (20+)
-Old may suffer through retirement, isolation from family, etc.
-Therefore, old have higher suicide rate.
Applying to Rural vs. Urban
-More anomie in urban areas (cities)
-More social solidarity in rural areas. (More in the past then now)
-Therefore, higher suicide rates in urban areas.
Applying to Catholic vs. Protestant
-Protestant is more of an individual religion.
-Therefore, protestant have higher suicide rates.
Applying to Aboriginal vs. Non-aboriginal
-Aboriginal have higher anomie, lots of unemployment, and not much social solidarity.
-Therefore, aboriginal have higher suicide rates.
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Description
Thursday September 17, 2009 ± Lecture 2 Sociological Theory Today: Read BRYM Chapter 1, BRYM Chapter 12 -DURKHEIM AND SUICIDE -READ IN TEXTBOOK, VERY IMPORTANT -Unlike psychology and philosophy, sociology looks at suicide from all points of views. -To sociology, suicide appears to be an anti-social, individual act. -However, Durkheim showed that suicide rates: 1. Decreased with social solidarity. 2. Increase with anomie. Social Solidarity -Defined as ties with other people. -Ex. Family, friends, etc. Anomie -Normlessness: social change as producer of anomie. -Defined as lack of usual social or ethical standards in an individual. -Ex. debt in family, market crash, unemployment, new job, etc. Applying to Men vs. Women -Women have more social solidarity. -Men have more anomie. -Therefore, higher suicide rates among men. -LOGIC: If suicides were just result of individual depression or mental illness, they would NOT vary systematically by group, time, etc. Applying to Young vs. Old -Young have more social solidarity. -Young and old both have fair amount of anomie. (20+) -Old may suffer through retirement, isolation from family, etc. -Therefore, old have higher suicide rate. Applying to Rural vs. Urban -More anomie in urban areas (cities) -More social solidarity in rural areas. (More in the past then now) -Therefore, higher suicide rates in urban areas. Applying to Catholic vs. Protestant -Protestant is more of an individual religion. -Therefore, protestant have higher suicide rates. Applying to Aboriginal vs. Non-aboriginal -Aboriginal have higher anomie, lots of unemployment, and not much social solidarity. -Therefore, aboriginal have higher suicide rates. www.notesolution.comwww.notesolution.com Explanation with change overtime -Social change in society. -Changes in recording death certificates. How is data socially constructed? Administrative decision and suicide rates? -Children suicide: Recorded as accidental deaths. -Prostitution charges have increased dramatically since 1985-1992; however, it does not mean that rates increase too. -Soliciting law against prostitution in 1972 -Supreme courts narrowly interpret soliciting (1983). -Bill C-49, much easier to bring charges against prostitutes, hence increases in prostitution rates. (1985-1992) -Therefore, determined as much by political and administrative procedures as by what is happening in the real world. -Law and social control may increase in observed rates. Sociological Theory: Functionalism vs. Conflict Rise of Sociological Theory -In medieval Europe, social order was God-given and fixed but then changed with the French and Industrial Revolution. -These revolutions created the problem of social order. Conservative Reaction to French Revolution -Those who lost the revolution. -Draws on Thomas Hobbes. -Stress need for restraint and order. -The basis of functionalism (belief that society is integrated (incorporated) as a whole). Liberals Reaction to French Revolution -Liberating gets rid of the aristocracy. (People of noble families or the highest social class) -Can rationally structure society. Auguste Compte (1798-³)DWKHURI6RFLRORJ\´ -Positivist: Believe in scientific method. -Social laws equivalent to law of nature. Dual Perspective on Society 1. Order, harmony and continuity. (Functionalism: Conservative) 2. Power, conflict and change. (Conflict) 1. Emile Durkheim (1858-³)DWKHURI)XQFWLRQDOLVP´ -Functionalism: Society integrated as a whole -Shared values keep society together, and socialization is a key theory. (Family) -Biological metaphor: Each part of society holds the society together. -PRIMARY QUESTION OF FUNCTIONALISM: www.notesolution.comwww.notesolution.com -What are the consequences? -Its functions of benefits for society as a whole? -How does it contribute to social stability? 3 Types of Functions 1. Manifest function: Clear to see or understand. 2. Latent function: Existing, but in an unexpressed form. 3. Dysfunction: Abnormality. -Functionalist stress latent, then manifest function. They downplay dysfunctions. Applying these Functions to Education 1. Manifest: Learn to think, know basic skills, knowledge, thinking, etc. 2. Latent: Keep people off job market, fit expectations to reality. 3. Dysfunctions: Devalues degrees, education too many people may cause employment dissatisfaction. 2. Karl Marx Conflict Theory -Class conflict is the key, leads to rise of power. -Most powerful impose their ideology on others. -Marx regarded workers (proletariat) as alienated in capitalism. -Exploited by bourgeoisie (Owners of means of production). -Argued the proletariat would become relatively impoverish and revolt. -PRIMARY QUESTION OF CONFLICT: -Who is benefiting from social arrangement? -:KR¶VLQWHUHVWDUHLQYROYHG" -How do the privileged maintain their advantage? Applying Conflict to Education -How do select students advance? -:KDWJURXS¶VEHQHILWUROHRIFHUWLILFDWLRQ -Legacy positions. -Ex. Harvard is a legacy school. How Functionalism and Conflict Explain Prostitution -Functional Approach: -Manifest function: Money can be made, provide access to those who cannot achieve, prostitution to prevent rape. (Ex. elderly, deformed, etc) -Latent functions: Fulfill desires that may not be fulfilled in the household, upholds family structure (in some places, ex. sex after marriage). -Dysfunctions: Disease, disturbing neighbourhoods, disrupt family relationships. -Conflict Approach: -Who benefits: males, pimps get the money. -However, aside from all the negativity of prostitution, there is no way of stopping it. www.notesolution.comwww.notesolution.comThursday September 17, 2009 Lecture 2 Sociological Theory Today: Read BRYM Chapter 1, BRYM Chapter 12 -DURKHEIM AND SUICIDE -READ IN TEXTBOOK, VERY IMPORTANT -Unlike psychology and philosophy, sociology looks at suicide from all points of views. -To sociology, suicide appears to be an anti-social, individual act. -However, Durkheim showed that suicide rates: 1. Decreased with social solidarity. 2. Increase with anomie. Social Solidarity -Defined as ties with other people. -Ex. Family, friends, etc. Anomie -Normlessness: social change as producer of anomie. -Defined as lack of usual social or ethical standards in an individual. -Ex. debt in family, market crash, unemployment, new job, etc. Applying to Men vs. Women -Women have more social solidarity. -Men have more anomie. -Therefore, higher suicide rates among men. -LOGIC: If suicides were j
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