Prod= produce/ product
Org = organized
Hidden curriculum is the curriculum that is not taught. It is usually informal. Here we are dealing with
conflict theory of edu. Bowles and Gintis argued that edu emphasizes on “status quo” that is the system
of privilege and exploitation currently in power. School sys enforce this “status quo” in subtle ways ( not
many pple are aware of it). Ruling class imposes its knowledge and its culture on the edu system. In
1890 public edu took off. Why did it take off @ that time? Bcz capitalism was looking for dosile. Dosile is
where u can tell pple wht to do w/o them questioning u about it. That is the reason edu took off.
Mandatory edu further insured that immigrants would learn English. Universities are lefties and liberal
and are proud of the fact that they feature diversity. So 90% of facility in American uni call them liberal
lefties. In contrast, uni are also the place where radicalism is born and nurture. According to prof, Uni is
not a place that enforces capitalism. Bowles and gintis -> Compliance, punctuality and discipline are all
taught in uni but not capitalist edu system.
Testing and Tracking
IQ tests are not used anymore. They are now a thing of the past. This is bcz they don’t measure
intelligence. They measure how effectively individual absorb the environment. Mem of under privilege
group tends to score low bcz of their background.
Gardner is to garden as _________ is to easel. Answers:
(a) driver (b) painter (c) priest (d) carpenter (e) bricklayer
You must need to know the meaning of the term in order to answer this question. Someone from
cultural minority might be at disadvantage. Low SES group is also at disadvantage bcz the test is biased.
In Toronto, Asian and south Asian are over representative now.
Deviance and Crime
Deviance is any behavior that violates culture norm and prod some sort of reaction. Some norms if
violated don’t result in sanction. Betraying of trust is violation of friendship norm but u don’t go to
prison for that; thus it is a deviance. However, some deviance throw u in jail e.g. criminal deviance
where you violate a law.
Deviance is generic & they are of two kinds: criminal and non criminal. We will talk about criminal
deviance. Criminal deviance attack more attention. What is the Canadian attitude towards crimes? TV
program that features crime are the most popular. Movies do ok as well. All these tv shows and movies are very formulaic (mixing of this and that) but in the end all same. Top shows CSI , prison break, greys &
Juvenile delinquency is usually treated differently. Different set of laws apply to juvenile. The age with
which u can be charged as an adult is not same everywhere. Juvenile case is very critical bcz it can lead
to life of crying. A person can become persistent offender thus most kids are send for rehabilitation. If u
put juvenile with adult offenders, there is a risk of them becoming successful criminal.
Labeling theory – is a sociological concept when society labels u & pple will live up to the label. They will
acquire an identity from social labeling and then live up to the identity that they have been given or
labeled with. So rehab is a better option than punishment. Most juvenile offenders are males and are
from low SES. Common crimes that they commit are grand theft auto, drug offenses, assault, stealing,
B&E (break and enter) and occasionally homicide. Criminologists have come up with this classification
system of the crime.
Victimless crimes are also called consensual crimes. e.g drug offense, use of laudanum (alcohol and
opium). Opium was use widely in civil war during amputation. Cocaine and Opium was widely used in
19 century. Freud wrote many papers on medicinal property of these drugs. Morphine is best pain
killer. Marijuana is widely used. In 20 century, all these drugs were made illegal. It was believed that
those pple who become hard core user of drugs start on marijuana. About 3.5 million Canadian has
smoked marijuana. Only 0.00001% went on to become hard time drug users. So the argument that
“marijuana put people up on drugs for life” is not strong and it is misrepresentation ( only true for tiny
minority of pple ). Consensual crimes are when both parties agree and no crime is committed in
traditional sense. Here, Buyer & Seller both are in agreement. If both parties agree to drug transaction,
there is no victim in traditional sense. We can say the same thing about gambling ( u place a bet; pple
take ur bet) . Same goes for vagrancy where a person without a settled home or regular work wanders
from place to place and lives by begging. Another example of consensual crime is prostitution. It is a
victimless crime. In the case of prostitution, young female police officers go undercover and have a
conversation with the “John” (person getting the service) whilst other police officers are listening to it.
When deal is finalized, police moves in & arrest “John”. This is an entrapment. Here, we see that police
is in fact encouraging pple to break the law. These undercover female police officers entice pple to get
tricked and break the law.
White collar crime is an imp type of crime. This can be committed by either low or upper class pple.
Street crimes are usually committed by low class pple. Edwin Sutherland was a sociologist who
popularized white collar crime. However, it was never investigated. Pple use to believe that most crimes
are done by underclass but Edwin said “no”; he argued that white collar crime is mostly related to work
and cost billions. Example, Bernie Made off did fraud of huge investment funds & cheated pple out of 50
billion dollars. People looked at the interest rate and became greedy and they all ended up losing their
White collar crime (WCC) cost society 40 times more than street crime. Street crimes are small potatoes.
White collar crimes tend to not include physical violence. E.g. mugging, breaking and entering, car theft etc. On the other hand, large co operations are convicted of so far 890 crimes. E.g. copyright
infringement (pirated CDs). A paten usually belongs to a company & can’t be used by anyone else, thus
copyrighting is counted as a crime. Other examples include:
- Price fixing where company gets together to decide the price.
- Industrial spying – copies machine.
- Forgery means faking documents related to accounting practices. E.g. showing that ur company
is making all those kind of money but in fact it is losing money.
- Fraud – selling something and claiming that it represent something that it is not. e.g. apple
saying to its customers that new i-pad is high def but it turns out to be not.
- Embezzlement – stealing money from ur company. e.g bank worker collecting few cents per
customer’s account which is unnoticeable & ends up with million in years.
- Tax payer another white collar crime (WCC).
- Unsafe workplace another imp one – rules regulations statues all involved.
- Selling unsafe prod – misrepresenting a prod especially if manufacture knows it is unsafe.
- Another one is pollution
Some says that WCC is treated more leniently than common crimes. Bcz street crimes are mostly
related to underclass, they get harder on by police. Also, low SES group pple don’t get the best
lawyer; they can file for a public defender which is often not so good. An argument against the idea
that WCC are treated leniently was made.
- Ken Lay (Enron) went to jail for accounting fraud & died there.
- Bernie Ebbers – world con .
- Bernie Madof – got several life term sentences. He ran a Ponzi scheme. Bernie Madof paid
dividends from investors and attracted new investors. He actually had nothing in his account.
- Martha Stewart – was charged with insider trading. When u work for a company u are aware of
wht it is doing so u have an advantage over outside investors. Pple who work for a company are
not allowed to trade the stock bcz they know about stocks before its release. So in the case of
inside trading, employees plan to split the profit with another team. In Martha Stewart case ->
no evidence for insider trader. But she did a mistake which was in fact a prudery trap.
Note: If you are stating something in front of a court that you are not sure about; make