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Sociology - Gender inequality.docx

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Sheldon Ungar

Brym Ch. 11 Gender inequality  Grasping the amount of inequality & explaining it  Refers to differences b/w women & men in the distribution of power, income & prestige Patriarchal  Male domination & female subordination evidence in all social relations o Eg, political, economical, familial & informal everyday behaviour Historical Perspective  Gender inequality is older than class inequality o EG – most hunting & gathering societies  A male perspective!! – better hunters & stronger so better status = more food  VS “net hunting” - don’t survive for very long vs warheads & weapons tht do o I.E. women more equal than usually assumed o Large beasts – males couldn’t hunt on their own w. their spears & arrows, theory is they used net hunting ( scare them into a hole , trap them, kill em or wait for them to die) o Women played similar part in net hunting  They also did the gathering, fruit & stuff, argument tht they provided more calories How to study gender equality  Women not brought in boats, conquered or colonized o Not segregated unlike slavery, not legally segregated in the city o Women were always a part of the group – colonizers & colonizing o Not distint in the way tht other groups are  Barriers & limiations but not like the other groups  Faced legal restrictions o Not vote, own property o NA, 1950s, restrictions couldn’t sign for a loan, couldn’t get a credit card w/out signature, couldn’t open up small businesses  not trusted  Could vote  1910, women couldn’t vote in US , 1914, 1915 o Sexual assault & rape, wasn’t free for all, but couldn’t get much justice, wouldn’t go to court & if they did, they lost o People w. restricted rights Can we use “ job model” ?  Women allocated to the private sphere ( home) o Didn’t earn anything o 1970s, issues raised tht they should be compensated for housework o Not much status o Men the public sphere  Women more economic dependence on men o Fathers, then spouse  Always linked to a significant male, relying on them o More part-time work o Occupational segregation ( pink collar)  Had part time work – called upon on holiday season  Did specific jobs o Jobs model ddidnt work very well then Percentage of men & women in paid labour force – 1946- 2007 47 – less than 20 % during the war, women took over most of the jobs Almost equal now Female Labour force Participation  Fenale labour force participation rose b/c of: o Increased demand for service workers  Diners have women, men serving in high class restaurants o Decrease in the average number of children per family  Not time  Went down to 2 during after war o Increased financial pressures on families  Necessary for middle class standing  Typically requires two wage earners Occupational Gender Segregation  Women typically do jobs that involve caregiving, or household- type management functions o More maids, nurses than men  Occupational sex segregation has decreased since the 1960s o Stewardness, nice looking slim young women  Fired after pregency, married – had to be single  Only kept on under 30 o Unmarried women earn more – almost as well as men compared to married women cuz they had other commitments & dependants 7- 80% of men  Women worked more parttime  Men more dangerous & difficult go to mwn Status Women as lower status than men  Defer more  Less recognition o Don’t get much credit  Lower status jobs o Conversation, men cut women off more than the opposite  1970- studies of plain dumb – women more likely to play dumb than men o Didn’t wanna show up the male – would shut up o MALES LOSING TO MFEMALE  Women’s status in broader society determined more by males ( THIS IS CHANGING) Power  Women as powerless in broader society o VS home ( domestic sphere)  Later add Church, charity, volunteerism  Women do more volunteerism  Power in household?? Women controlled finances in many families  Europe – women dominated, Africa – men dominated finances  Women in politics in Canadian political parties  1992- local riding , highest 70 percent, highest among all types b/c not much power o Lowest in cabinet & lesgislator Unequal life chances Third world –  Abortion o In many societies, female fetuses aborted  100 million missing article ( 20 yrs ago) – China ( one child policy ) Chinese want male offspring  India – large scale  Goes on for afterwards  Goes on here  Especially immigrant group  Infanticide – China particurlarly, kill the child, female infanticide o Even in Europe maybe – bad economic problems, cant afford children  Dowry deaths o Honor killings o Widow burning  Goes on in a number of societies, against the law – hasn’t stopped  If dowry not big enough, they kill her o Kitchen fires - organized, women in law  Sex slavery/rape o One of the biggest unequal chances  1989 – capitalist soviet, young females were told they’d get jobs in Europe, asked to give over your passport & sent them to east Europe, enslaved – forced to work & pay off trip fees  WW2 – Germans invaded east Europe, tons of systemic rape, soviets came bac
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