-But it was certainly normative.
-It embodied the currently most honoured way of being a man, it required all other men to
position themselves in relation to it, and it ideologically legitimated the global subordination of
women to men.
-Men who received the benefits of patriarchy without enacting a strong version of masculine
dominance could be regarded as showing a complicit masculinity.
-It was in relation to this group, and to compliance among heterosexual women, that the concept
of hegemony was most powerful.
-Hegemony did not mean violence, although it could be supported by force; it meant ascendancy
achieved through culture, institutions, and persuasion.
-These concepts were abstract rather than descriptive, defined in terms of the logic of a
patriarchal gender system.
-They assumed that gender relations were historical, so gender hierarchies were subject to
-Hegemonic masculinities therefore came into existence in specific circumstances and were open
to historical change.
-This was the element of optimism in an otherwise rather bleak theory.
-It was perhaps possible that a more humane, less oppressive, means of being a man might
become hegemonic, as part of a process leading toward an abolition of gender hierarchies.
-In the late 1980s and early 1990s, research on men and masculinity was being consolidated as
an academic field, supported by a string of conferences, the publication of textbooks and several
journals, and a rapidly expanding research agenda across the social sciences and humanities.
-The concept of hegemonic masculinity was used in education studies to understand the
dynamics of classroom life, including patterns of resistance and bullying among boys.
-It was used to explore relations to the curriculum and the difficulties in gender-neutral
-It was used to understand teacher strategies and teacher identities among such groups as
physical education instructors.
-The concept also had influence in criminology.
The concept of hegemonic masculinity helped in theorizing the relationship among
masculinities and among a variety of crimes and was also used in studies on specific
crimes by boys and men, such as rape in Switzerland, murder in Australia, football
“hooliganism” and white-collar crime in England, and assaultive violence in the United
-The concept was also employed in studying media representations of men, for instance, the
interplay of sports and war imagery.
-The concepts of hegemonic and subordinated masculinities helped in understanding not only
men’s exposure to risk but also men’s difficulties in responding to disability and injury.
It was deployed in understanding the popularity of body contact confrontational
sports—which function as an endlessly renewed symbol of masculinity—and in
understanding the violence and homophobia frequently found in sporting milieus.
-The concepts of multiple masculinities and hegemonic masculinity were increasingly used to
understand men’s health practices, such as “playing hurt” and risk-taking sexual behaviour.
-The concept of hegemonic masculinity also proved significant in organization studies, as the
gendered character of bureaucracies and workplaces was increasingly recognized.