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Lecture

Primate Behavior and Ecology

3 Pages
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Department
Anthropology
Course Code
ANT100Y1
Professor
Christopher Watts

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Primate Behavior and Ecology
Primate Characteristics
Mammals, not pets; differ from most mammals by having grasping hands and feet, collarbone (Clavicle),
radius and ulna, forward facing eyes and stereoscopic vision (depth perception)
Dangerous, belong in the wild; diseasesdisastrous; visually oriented
Activity patterns: nocturnal (active at night), diurnal (active during day), crespuscular (active at dusk and
dawn), cathemeral (active any time of day or night)
Diets: frugivore (fruit), folivore (leaves), insectivore (diet of insects), graminivore (diet of small seeds and
grasses), faunivore (invertebrates and vertebrates), gummivore (tree exudates), graminivore (small seeds
and grasses), seed predator/schelerocarpivory (hard seeds), omnivore (varied diet)
Primate Taxonomy
Order -> suborder -> infraorder
Strepsirhine characteristics: dental tooth comb, moist rhinarium, unfused manibular and frontal sympases,
taetum hicidum, postorbital bar
oTwo superfamilies:
Lemuroidea: Madagascar and Comoro islands, Arboreal quadrupeds and leapers, some
partially terrestrial, many small-bodies species are nocturnal, females dominance, varied
diet
Lorisoidea: found throughout sub-Saharan Africa and Southeast Asia, Lorises and
galagos, Arboreal quadrupeds, nocturnal, varied diet
Legend: lemurs sad about lorises taking their tail; contrasting cries/calls
Lemurs endemic to Madagascar
Haplorhine characteristics: dry nose, retinal forvea, postorbital closure, fused mandibular and frontal
symphases (cf Tarsiers)
oThree infraorders
Tarsiiformes: one genus (Tarshius), found in SE Asia, small body size, relatively large
eyes, with fused lower leg bones, entirely faunivorous
Platyrrhines: (Neotropical mokeys), medium size, central and south America, cebidae,
atelidae and callitrichidae, prehensile tail in few species, most entirely arboreal (look like
old tropical European colonists)
Catarrhines: (Old World monkeys and apes), Africa, Asia and SE Asia, big,
cercopithecidae, hylobatidae and hominidae, varied diets, social organizations and
adaptations (mates for lifetime but sometimes “cheat….)
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Description
Primate Behavior and Ecology Primate Characteristics Mammals, not pets; differ from most mammals by having grasping hands and feet, collarbone (Clavicle), radius and ulna, forward facing eyes and stereoscopic vision (depth perception) Dangerous, belong in the wild; diseases disastrous; visually oriented Activity patterns: nocturnal (active at night), diurnal (active during day), crespuscular (active at dusk and dawn), cathemeral (active any time of day or night) Diets: frugivore (fruit), folivore (leaves), insectivore (diet of insects), graminivore (diet of small seeds and grasses), faunivore (invertebrates and vertebrates), gummivore (tree exudates), graminivore (small seeds and grasses), seed predatorschelerocarpivory (hard seeds), omnivore (varied diet) Primate Taxonomy Order -> suborder -> infraorder Strepsirhine characteristics: dental tooth comb, moist rhinarium, unfused manibular and frontal sympases, taetum hicidum, postorbital bar o Two superfamilies: Lemuroidea: Madagascar and Comoro islands, Arboreal quadrupeds and leapers, some partially terrestrial, many small-bodies species are nocturnal, females dominance, varied
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