Class Notes (835,342)
Canada (509,116)
Anthropology (1,673)
ANT100Y1 (959)
Lecture

Lecture - Archaeological Data and Dating These notes include the lecture notes from October 28, 2010. This is also Professor Watts's lecture of the year on the Archaeology segment of the course. I apologize if the font is very small. I use Microsoft Of

1 Page
130 Views
Unlock Document

Department
Anthropology
Course
ANT100Y1
Professor
Christopher Watts
Semester
Fall

Description
 Subsurface Techniques Archaeological Data and Dating □ Excavation: recovering archaeological data October-28-10  Normally begins with a surface collection (if site is ploughed or 6:00 PM disturbed) ○ Concerned with everyday practices and everyday life  Datum and grid  Surface collection Archaeological Record ○ The matrices in which artifacts, ecofacts, sites and other human -manufactured features or results spatial distribution of artifacts on the surface of a site is recorded with reference to a fixed point (datum) of past human action are found ◊ This produces accurate maps which can then be used to Three Typical Elements of Archaeological Research guide the excavation ○ Observed material culture  When excavating, we record subsurface features and the ○ Unobservedhuman/non-human activity location of artifacts in a similar fashion... ○ Interpretation/explanation of human activity  With reference to a grid system (based on Cartesian Material Evidence ○ coordinates: x and y axes Physical: artifacts, features, ecofacts  Types of Excavations ○ Spatial (positions of artifacts): activity areas, sites, regions ◊ Open-area, areal o horizontalexcavations Artifact ► Uncover and remove layers (stratas)from youngest ○ Any portable object whose form has been shaped (i.e., manufactured or modified) by way of to oldest, simultaneously, across a wide area human activity ◊ Grid-and baulk or vertical excavations ○ Things that have been modelled and shaped ► Focused on a single, small portion of the site ○ Example: Acheulian Hand Axe from Gilan, Iraq; Funerary mask of Tutankhamun ► Units separated by baulks Feature ► You can employ this if you don't have a lot of people, money or time ○ Nonportable material evidence of human activity (e.g., hearths, storage pits, postholes) ○ Example: Kelly Site Excavation Plan; Rock art; Pyramids, Giza  Examples: Screen ◊ Considerations: aperture size of mesh Ecofacts  Stratigraphy: the analytical process by which we order layers ○ Non-artifactual material evidence of human activity and features chronologically; how sites are formed in the ○ Can be further subdivided into Macrofossils and Microfossils record ○ Macrofossils  Based on the Law of Superposition  Visible to the naked eye, e.g., kernel of corn ◊ Sediments are deposited on top of pre-existing sediments  Can be retrieved through flotation or normal excavation procedures  Flotation Device Dating Techniques □ Water separation of soil matrices ○ Stratigraphy is a relative dating method □ Used primarily to recover macrofossils ○ Levels (and, by extension, the artifacts, ecofacts, and features contained in them) can be ordered through □ Lighter materials float to the surface, caught in sieves time based on their stratigraphic position ○ Microfossils ○ There are other methods known as absolute dating methods  e.g., pollen, phytoliths found in soils or residues adhering to artifacts  Dendrochronology  Retrieved through mechanical and chemical disaggregation □ Tree-ring dating of preserved wood  Visible only under high-power magnification, 200x or greater □ Chronologies based on overlapping ring sequences  Example: Poaceae (grass) pollen grains □ Limitations:  Cannot be used in tropical regions Archaeological Site  ○ Can be defined in a number of ways Confined to certain tree species ○  Radiocarbon Dating Usually consists of a collection of activity areas containing any of the following: □ Radioactive isotope or 'variety' of carbon which
More Less

Related notes for ANT100Y1

Log In


OR

Join OneClass

Access over 10 million pages of study
documents for 1.3 million courses.

Sign up

Join to view


OR

By registering, I agree to the Terms and Privacy Policies
Already have an account?
Just a few more details

So we can recommend you notes for your school.

Reset Password

Please enter below the email address you registered with and we will send you a link to reset your password.

Add your courses

Get notes from the top students in your class.


Submit