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ANT100 DECEMBER 1 2011 What is a complex society States preindustrial larger than chiefdoms generally 20 plus thousand class based as opposed to kin shaped occupational specialization class based heiracrhcy under kingemperor laws bureaucracy taxation and standing armies can go out and conquer or defend cities before were villages and towns we see for the first times cities archeological examples include all ancient civilizations 6 Ancient high civs arch recognize mesapotamia 3200 BC southern Iraq nile valley 300 bc Indus valley 2500 bc border india and Pakistan north china 2000 bc Mesoamerica 1500 bc south america 1500 bc 6 areas recognize movement toward high level sate societies Archeological indicators writing first writing in mesopatoamia metallurgy example china bronze work predictive sciences example astronomy and mathematics large population aggregate urbanization some sites movement large aggreagates this set complex societies apart also get occupational specialization eg craftreligious specialists members of a priestly class not growing food but exchange knowledge for food monumental architecture construction of squares and monuments investment of labor to build these things Importantly not all of these indicators are present in every ancient civilations example little evidence for ostentatious display of power in harappan Indus valley civilization also little evidence for urbanization in old kingdom Egypt or among the maya no evidence for densely populated areas no writing in ancient south America peru evidence of recorded sums using system of knotted strings called quipo the inca administered almost 6 mill from Colombia to chile signif Indicatorswriting Not the same as languagecognitive dimensions in writing operate in different channels then languge writing is very recent language much much longer most early writing is logographic which is one written symbol for each item morpheme in vocabulary morpheme smallest unit in a language cat dog chair cant be broken down and retain meaning characters stand for meanings not soundsMost celeb logo is Chinese system correspondence of symbol and unit in language iconic between sign and what it signifies some resemble what it is in real life shoulder blades of oxen where people etch various symbols into them and priest take heated wire bone crack and priest would reads crack to foresee the future shang oracle bones 1600 bcLater development involve syllabicalphabetic systems syllabic is written symbol for each syllable examples cuneiform mesopatamia and heiroglypics Egypt alphabetic is written symbol for each consonant and vowel example greek alphabet 22 symbols roman latin alphabet 21 symbols borrowed and evolved what we use today in westDebate of logographic script or connected are they example rock casrvings did they emerge from them or emerged for need for writing which sime say emerge due to different needs
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