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Lecture 11

ARC132 - Lecture 11

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Architecture Studies
Zeynep Celik

1 Lecture 11 – Architecture as Utopia II: Public - Recall: ways to define mod. ARC  engagement of social projects o Social project to change society for better  ≠ always the case  Utopia + dystopia present in mod. ARC  always coexisted in mod. ARC - * Utopia - an imaginary and indefinitely remote place; a place of ideal perfection - * Dystopia – an imaginary place where people lead dehumanized and often fearful lives - Iconic dystopia  Pruitt-Igoe complex - Desire of mod. architects to change social relations o Change our interactions w/ each other, ourselves, etc. - * Type – a particular spatial arrangement o Robin Evans – nature of human relationships found in architect’s plans  interaction of individuals  idea used by architects as a tool  Changing plan  ∴ change social relations - * Social Condenser – any spatial arrangement (housing unit, building, city) that is meant to transform the social interactions among human subjects occupying those spaces o Ginzburg and Milinis, Narkomfin Housing Complex, Moscow, 1928-30 o Nikolaiev, Communal Housing for the Textile Institute, Moscow, 1929-30 o Transitional housing/the way to society where you can imagine collectiveness  Unity designed by architects = will change structure of family (ex: liberating women from housework) + be kind of catalyst for realization of new kind of society - Corridors: space = catalyst for social interaction o * Le Corbusier, Unite d’Habitation, Marseille, 1947-52 - * Le Corbusier, Towards an Architecture, 1923 o ARC/revolution  ARC can prevent revolutions by changing society - * Ledoux, Royal Saltworks of Chaux, original commission 1771, built between 1774-78 o Easing tension btwn state, employers, + workers o Improve social relations  coexists w/ desire to control workers  turning to kind of panopticon - * Existenzminimum – minimum dwelling, subsistence dwelling, dwelling that is assumed to provide the minimally acceptable floor space, fresh air, access to transit and green space, etc. - * Le Corbusier, Contemporary City for Three Million Inhabitants, 1922 o ↑ intensity + density w/in city  solution to create better city  another solution: garden cities (Frankfurt) 2 - Differences btwn Red Vienna + CIAM housing criteria o NB – Wagner vs. Sitte  adaptation of ideas for Red Vienna Public - Describes space that = on opposition to private  entity beyond our individual self-interest - Enlightenment  closely tied w/ public sphere - Lecture: contemporary status of public o Today: experiencing erosion of idea of public The Pruitt-Igoe Myth - Public housing project - * Charles Jencks, The Language of Post-Modern Architecture, 1977 o Mod. ARC died when P-I scheme = destroyed o Shows that mod. ARC ≠ change society - Suburbia o Loss of industrial facilities in western societies  replaced by service societies o Demographic changes  due to new mortgage systems, construction of highways (to appropriate sites outside city) o P-I buildings = like tools of segregation o Slum clearance in America = imp.  Slums breed crime + diseases  * Slum clearance – urban renewal  Neighbourhoods = taken down + underwent urban renewal - * Yamasaki, Pruitt-Igoe, St. Louis, 1955, destroyed in 1972 o 33 identical elevator buildings o Attempts @ improving blocks  Assimilation of neighbourhoods in city setting  By creating skip-floor elevators, communal facilities, etc.  Various programs cancelled b/c of budget cuts o Maintenance of facility = issue  couldn’t be sustained thru federal funding  ∴ had to come out of rent ppl paid  b/c of budget cuts + legal prob’s + constructed w/ improper materials o P-I never fully occupied (microcosm of St. Louis)  Those that did occupy = poor + on welfare o Direct link btwn physical environ. + human behaviour o Design of arc
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