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FAH337 Week 10

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University of Toronto St. George
Betsy Bennett Purvis

March 10, 2014 Week 10 FAH337 Prints, copyright and forgery in Cinquecento Italy Albrecht Duerer, Self-Portrait, 1500/ Icon of Christ, th 6 c., Monastery of St. Catherine, Sinai Divine creation of god transferred into artist himself. Sign of own authorship is shown through his initials (A.D). Painting on wood panel by the German Renaissance artist Albrecht Dürer. Painted early in 1500, just before his 29th birthday, it is the last of his three painted self-portraits. The self-portrait is most remarkable because of its resemblance to many earlier representations of Christ.Art historians note the similarities with the conventions of religious painting, including its symmetry, dark tones and the manner in which the artist directly confronts the viewer and raises his hands to the middle of his chest as if in the act of blessing. Vision of himself as an artist/intellectual. Blends references to secular portraiture. Image of Jesus looking out engaging gesture of blessing. Borrowing from this type of authoritative image. Clothing is fur lined not cheap and little cuts of the sleeve and banding together of outer coat and presentation of his hair presenting himself in a mode of highly refined gentleman. Borrows pose and mode of engagement. Inscription written in German translates to “Albrecht Dürer of Nuremberg painting this image from life in delible colours at the age of 28”. Painting this from life. Looks very believable/lifelike with the use of light on his skin/face. Placing of hand on his chest and finger points inward at himself makes self referential gesture.Also places emphasis on his hand as the vehicle for the creation of this art. Albrecht, Duerer, From the Life of the Virgin, Presentation of Christ in the Temple, 1505, woodcut, Wien,Albertina Woodcut, lines are well defined and hard. They could be used as devotional objects.Albrecht Dürer published the Life of the Virgin in 20 prints, this is one of them. The subject of this print is the bringing of the infant Jesus by Mary and Joseph to the Temple in Jerusalem to be consecrated to the Lord.According to the Bible, the Jewish rite of the 'purification' of the mother, which required the sacrifice of a pair of turtledoves or young pigeons, was celebrated simultaneously with the consecration of the infant. Dürer has produced a dramatic and highly memorable representation of these events, crowded with onlookers and set in a monumental architectural setting. Simeon, dressed as a High Priest of the Temple, holds the infant Christ above the altar.Afemale attendant kneels in the foreground with the 1 March 10, 2014 cage of birds. Joseph stands behind her and next to him stands Mary, with the prophetess Anna pointing at her. Woodcut=defines lines Medium of print making that made him very popular they were avidly sought after. He was well known for making series of prints of theApocalypse from the book of Revelation. His works were known throughout Europe, made in multiples. First time in Renaissance were we see this idea of forgery and copyright. Dürer’s is a woodcut Marcontonio’s is an engraving. Crosshatching for shading. If you cut and carve at a 90 degree angle you get splinters so this is very difficult to do and impressive.Amount of detail you can get over the life of the copies that you make. Every time you push down the printing edge you dull the wood block. Copper is very soft so repeated pressure means you lose detail even quicker. Marcantonio’s is undistinguishable. When Durer became aware he brought this as a legal complaint to the governing body of Venice and said this guy is basically stealing my works of art. Governors had to think in a new way about this idea of images as intellectual property. They said as long as the monogram was not included then that would be ok. Marcantonio Raimondi, Presentation of Christ in the Temple, 1505, engraving Wien,Albertina Monogram of Dourer is show on left bottom column. Same subject executed as an engraving, lines are softer than Dürer’s print. Marcantonio having considered what honour and profit might be acquired by one who could apply himself to that art (of print) in Italy, formed the determination to give his attention to it. He thus began to copy those engravings by Albrecht Duerer, studying the manner of each stroke and every other detail of the prints that he had bought, which were held in such estimation on the account of their novelty and beauty, that everyone sought to have some. Having then counterfeited on copper, with engraving as strong as that of the woodcuts thatAlbrecht had executed, the whole of the said Life and Passion of Christ in 36 sheets, he added to these the signature thatAlbrecht used for all his works, which was “A.D.”, and they proved to be so similar in manner, that, no one knowing that they had been executed by Marcantonio, they were ascribed toAlbrecht, and were bought and sold as works by his hand.” Engraving=softer lines 2 March 10, 2014 The Martyrdom of St. Sebastian, South Germany, 1470-75, London, British Museum / The Martyrdom of St. Sebastian, 1470-75, colored woodcut, Guidhall Library, Corporation of London .. *not important just showing example Image being used as an illustration for a religious text. Not a lot of detail is carved into plate. Plate on the left was prepared for print. Woodblock of very fine grain, areas carved away, negative leave outlines. Then coloured in. originally created in the reverse. With copper prints, they etch the lines into soft metal, similar but reverse. Durer was at a disadvantage since he was an outsider. A. Duerer, Joachim andAnne meeting at the Golden Gate, ca. 1505, woodcut, London British Museum Only produced woodcuts never engravings. Same subject as Raimondi Joachim, Joachim andAnne Meeting at the Golden Gate. Depicts the standard scene of the parents of the Virgin Mary, Joachim andAnne meeting at the Golden Gate of Jerusalem after Anne discovers she is unexpectedly pregnant, and they rejoice by hugging. Most inventive/important part of the composition is copied, still includes monogram just changes detail in the framework. Frame is intricate/ decorative. M. Raimondi Joachim and Anne meeting at the Golden Gate, 1505, engraving, London British Museum Duerer, Feast of the Rose Garlands, 1506 Durer was part of the German community in Venice. Had  hometown connections by fellow Germans living in Venice.  Image of Virgin Mary and child that relates to idea of the  rosary. Flanked by two representatives of European authority one of which is the Pope  (religious authority) on the left in a pinkish gold robe on the other hand is the holy  Roman emperor (secular authority). Off to the right side is a portrait of Durer he is eager  to showcase himself as a successful artist and as a gentleman. Wearing carmine coat with  black velvet trim. Identifies himself with a paper inscription were he identifies himself as  “Albrecht Durer the German”. Uses altarpiece for national pride amongst Venetians.  3 March 10, 2014 Created in 5 months, testament to his status and capability as an artist. Dramatic setting  outdoors. Produced for a highly visible location at in San Bartolomeo al Rialto, a church  that served the local German community. The altarpiece demonstrated the principals of  painting that pertained north of the Alps, while also showing that Durer could outdo the  Venetians in all the artistic qualities at which they excelled: the handling of colour and  light and the rendering of landscape. By presenting the Virgin and Child enthroned in  outdoor light he was seeking comparison with Bellini’s San Zaccaria altarpiece, which he  studied closely. The arrangement of colour across the surface, the figure of the musician  angel, even the two flanking trees all correspond to elements in Bellini’s painting. Yet  Durer does not pursue Bellini’s spatial effects, the sense of the figures detached from one  another in a continuous volume of light and air. The picture is packed; bustling  interaction replaces the static detachment of Bellini’s composition. Durer reimagines the  traditional formula of enthroned Madonna with votive portraits as an action or  performance. While two cherub in crown the virgin as Queen of Heaven, she and the  Christ Child, along with angels and St. Dominic, distribute rose garlands to the kneeling  figures around the throne: these appear to be portraits, perhaps of confraternity members,  but only two are clearly identifiable. In the place of honour to the Virgins right, Pope  Julius II receives a rose crown from Christ, while the Virgin wr
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