BIO130H1 Lecture Notes - Lecture 25: Gene Duplication, G1 Phase, G2 Phase

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2 Apr 2019
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BIO130 Lecture 25 01/04/2019
The cell cycle
M phase:
o The nucleus and cytoplasm divide
Mitosis
Cytokinesis
Interphase
o Period between cell divisions
G1 phase
Normal metabolism
Organelles duplicate
S phase
DNA replication
Chromosomal duplication
G2 phase
Cell grows
Cell prepares for mitosis
Cell cycles in multicellular organisms
Many mature cells do not divide
o E.g. nerve cells, muscle cells, RBC
o As they become specialized, they lose the ability to divide
Some cells only divide when given an appropriate stimulus
o E.g. liver cells
o When part of the liver is surgically removed the remaining liver cells start
to divide to replace the lost tissue
Some cells normally divide on an ongoing basis
o E.g. hematopoietic and epithelial stem cells
Cells that do not divide are in G0
Cells are not dividing but this does not mean they are dying / dead
They can still make proteins and metabolize things
Some cells can go back into the cell cycle
o E.g. liver cells
Some cells will go to G0 and some will exit G0
The cell cycle control system
Delays later events until the earlier events are complete
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