BCH210H1 Lecture Notes - Lecture 31: Phosphocreatine, Pyruvic Acid, Glut4

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BCH210 Lecture 25 Glycolysis
Energy production in muscle
- Phosphocreatine is a form of stored phosphate used for ATP
o Small and limited resource
o When levels fall, additional ATP production is required
- Glucose from the blood stream enters muscle cells via GLUT4 transporters
- Glycogen breakdown in the liver generates glucose-1-phosphate
- The glycolytic pathway is needed for ATP production from monosaccharides
o The sugar does not have to be glucose but can be fructose, galactose
Glycolysis
- Takes place in the cytoplasm
- Overall 2 ATP molecules are produced
o 2 ATP molecules are consumed in the first stage and 4 are produced in the
second stage
- 2 pyruvate molecules are produced from one glucose molecule
- 10 enzymes are involved
- Further oxidation takes place in the mitochondria where more ATP is produced
- Overall it is an exergonic pathway under standard and cellular conditions
o Proceeds in the forward direction
o Quite favorable
- Stage 1
o 5 steps with 2 ATP-requiring steps
o Energy input
o 2 GAP molecules are produced
One from F-1,6-BP
The other from DHAP isomerization
- Stage 2
o Consists of 5 steps
o GAP is converted into pyruvate via a series of steps
o Overall 2 pyruvate molecules are produced because the cycle runs twice as
there are 2 GAP molecules
o 4 ATP molecules are produced
o 2 NADH molecules are produced
o Pyruvate is then used in the mitochondria
- The regulated steps in glycolysis and large negative G values
o Act on these steps to regulate glycolysis
Glycolysis regulation
- Step 1: Hexokinase can be inhibited by buildup of its product glucose-6-phosphate
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