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Lecture 2

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Victoria Wohl

Lecture 2 Jan 11th 2011 Lecture 2 - Introduction, History and background -we are going to be focusing on Athens and the Classical period for this course -Athens is in ATTICA (i.e Toronto is in southern Ontario) -had been inhabited since the Mycenaean time -From myths, Athenians believed they were born from the Earth -Hephaestus blacksmith god fell in love with AThena (who is a virgin goddess), she ran, Hephaestus ran after her then prematurely ejaculated, from the semen first king of Athens was born Erichthonios -Authochony =“people who are born from the land” -would be very attached to that land, makes them feel superior to for- eigners who would never have the same qualities as Athenians so even -if lived, worked and fought in Athens still could NOT be a citizen, even if married an Athenian your child still wouldn't be an Athenian (need TWO par- ents to pass it down) -sense of family, unity and equality amongst the Athenian - attitude towards women -> you are not necessary, we were born from the Earth & Hephaestus -Athenians had a democracy BUT that wasn’t always the case...remember during the Archaic period had hierarchy BUT were soon overthrown and democracy was put in place -Athenian democracy was a DIRECT/RADICAL democracy -contrast to a representative democracy (make a vote for a person to represent you in government) so there is a GAP b/w the ppl and the government -NO distance at all b/w the ppl and the government, all the decisions are made by the people! -every citizen had a part in the democracy, everyone had a chance to be in a high position (would choose random ppl from a raffle) - “demokratia” = power of the masses (the ordinary Athenian citizens) -Not everyone was happy about this like the: -Old Elites -when shifted -> felt disgruntled (they didnt have their power anymore) -for them demokratia meant the ‘unlawful rule of the great unwashed” Lecture 2 Jan 11th 2011 -they wanted an “aristokratia” -> rule of the best people (who in their mind was them) -Women -Slaves -Non-citizens So there was a LOT of tension Funeral Oration -first deaths of the war 430-431 B.C after the first year of the Pelopolisean war -Memorialize those who had died -”Epitaphs Logos” -> speech over the graves of the dead; traditional form of oratory in Athens; democratic updating of kleos -”Kleo” -> immortal glory; this is what most men were fight for in things like the Trojan war -NO one gets named individually, it is a collective Kleo, so the warriors arent getting individual kleo -> getting collective Kleos -vague on details on general; there are very few concrete details “he says: you already the details, so I’m not going to tell you what you know”. Focuses on the moral value of fighting (this is what it MEANS). Also if keep it abstract -> all can agree on so ppl. -Honour the dead, encourage the living by showing them these are the ideals that they are fighting for. This makes it valuable for us because it shows us what the Athenians valued and what they were willing to die for -Whose words are we hearing in the oration? Thucydides or Pericles? -Thucydides he says he tried to get everything right, its not like there were (had to write on papyrus roll or chisel it into stone) -he noted the prob with writing about the history in this book, so he would basically fill in the blank of what he thinks the speaker would have said -Purpose of the oration for Thucydides -> lets him set up the ideal vision of Athens that the rest of his text will show that Athens fails to live up to -Although it was probably most of Thucydides words, for us it doesn’t really matter because both matter were smart and were living in the and are equally qualified to represent Athens -What are the qualities that Pericles praises in the Athenians? -manliness -discipline -courage -rationality/logic (think about risk b4 taking them) -freedom/openness -democracy Lecture 2 Jan 11th 2011 -patriotism -nobility -ability to use wealth properly and not judge the poor (social equity) -Why does he start with praise of ancestors when he is supposed to be praising the dead? -good qualities we have we have inherited them vs the spartans who have to learn how to be good men -autochtony -as if Athens and ancestors were the parents of everyone in the audience -sort of elitism for the whole community -each gen. Inherited increased land to the next generation (so more than what he got). This is an aristocrat way of thinking -When talks about the present, he talks about democracy, what does he praise? -equality
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