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GGR100H1 (141)

Cities of South America.doc

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University of Toronto St. George

Cities of South America -South America as testing ground for development reforms (especially in the 1970s), to be later applied globally -constructing region of South America -Spanish +Portuguese colonial ism (historical moments) -347 million people with over 80% living in urban areas -urban primacy in South America -3 megacities in SA: Buenos Aires, Sao Paulo, Rio de Janeiro -Venezuela and Uruguay, Argentina = most urbanized countries -Paraguay, Ecuador, Bolivia =least urbanized -highly complex and diverse region -Andes region has very different cities; much variability -Southern cone on regional, national -Brazil, urban scale -> sub region(Andes) Important Historical Context -Early global urbanization, i.e., Machu Picchu -many inter-urban networks -pre-Columbian, Pre-European context -Late 14 Century Spanish colonial dominance -Treaty of Tordesillas -treaty signed by both Spain and Portugal enforced by the Catholic Church -the area east of the treaty line belonged to Portugal (Africa, West Indies) and the area to the right was Spain’s. -Spanish and Portuguese colonial paths -Portugal was primarily a sea empire; possessing ports around the world rather than land which the Spanish empire focused on (South America) -Law of the Indies -differentiation of people into race -how people should live, work, move around in the city -based on the idea of European elitism -people didn’t submit to colonialism therefore, this law was put into place -this caused a lot of uprisings and protests -establishes colonial regime in cities -Enduring Spanish influence -1970’s onward South America had debt crisis -we’re discussing colonized South America Social, Economic, Spatial Polarization -Extreme economic polarization -examples where people live, peoples socio-economic status -Afro Brazilian population-slaves brought from Africa -Salvador de Bahia, biggest city with Africans outside Africa -Indigenous people- Andes region -Euro-elite – Southern cone cities -Social segregation- people with certain social and economic statuses are limited from opportunities to improve themselves -extreme polarization and social segregation are connected -Salvador de Bahia -built as a trade port for slaves -now has a large Afro Brazilian influence and culture -iconic as a reminder of the past -originally colonized by Spain before the line of the treaty moved Informal Economy -Regular employment of elusive -temporary; low wage -maids, cooks, gardeners -limited availability -Public spaces and informal economy -businesses not official,
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