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HIS109Y1 (536)

The Thirty Years War

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Anthony Cantor

The Thirty Years War Hussites Von Wallenstein (1583-1634) Gustavus Adolphus (d. 1632) Westphalia (1648) Cardinal Richelieu Drawing and reconstruction of Europe  Kings and princes acting on their best interest for reasons of state, but bringing the lives of their subjects into peril (mass slaughter)  Peace of Westphalia, ended the war o Began introducing ideas that formed the 17 century  France would be the most power state  Hapsburg would decline  Concept of a general peace treaties and of collective security  Rise of Lutheranism  Each prince was to determine the religion of his subjects o It worked for a while because it offered a temporary means of solving problems that were originally deemed unsolvable  War broke out in the kingdom of Bohemia (1618). Would draw in all states. Religious in nature but had powerful political implications. o The Hapsburg empire was the result of very clever marriages. The Holy Roman Empire (usually a Hussite) was not only that, but also the king of Bohemia and other places. o 1617, Rudolf’s cousin was a religious fanatic. Refused to rule over something that wasn’t catholic. o Bohemia, essentially the modern Czech republic o The Kings of Bohemia were elected, not hereditary o Nobles didn’t like the holy roman empire just taking the crown, so they voted in a new King. War began  Hapsburg attempted to create a generalized rule  Money was being sent to Bohemia  Protestants were defeated o Hapsburgs won. Catholic nobility was developed in Bohemia  Hapsburgs were in charge of Bohemia once more o Catholic nobility, Fredrick was out of the picture, Ferdinand was now in charge  Ferdinand wanted to destroy all Protestantism in Hapsburg land  1620: Ferdinand was completely in charge, Protestantism was destroyed, Hapsburg power was essentially unchallenged in German Speaking land.  Other lands around it were worried by this o Opposition attempted to rise Albert Von Wallenstein o Remarkable man. Born into the minor Bohemian nobility o Brilliant careerist and opportunist. Able to build a private army that it became the tool for Hapsburgs against the Danes o Promised them ‘loot and booty’ o Army of thieves, rapists, thugs  Ferdinand claimed victory over all protestant powers in Germany because of Wallenstein  1630: Demanding of Ferdinand to get rid of Von Wallenstein o Wallenstein was asked to disband his army after being fired, but he didn’t and kept them o People said if Ferdinand
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