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Innis College Courses
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Vikki Visvis

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Lecture – October 28, 2010
-pro-life proponents appeal to pathos when describing dismemberment of fetus
during abortion
-Are these appeals legitimate? YES
oIntensify and deepen emotion of issue
oNeoclassical criticism – elucidate issue not divert attention from
-Access non-logical, but not necessarily non-rational way of dealing with issue
-What matters to the person
-Helps reader experience walking in writer’s shoes – EMPATHY
identifying/seeing oneself in issue
oA truth there
-Stories, sensory details
-Illegitimate if diverts reader from rational towards irrational criteria
Abstract vs. concrete language
-Abstract language – ideas, concepts
oLove, success, moral, democracy, freedom, -isms,
-Concrete language – vs. abstract
oAvailable to the senses
-Heighten pathos by using concrete, specific examples
oEnlivening the prose
-speaker appears credible – audience will likely accept the propositions put
forward – speaker seen as authority
oespecially important in cases when lacking exact knowledge because can’t
really appeal to logos
oif there is doubt, credibility is important
-Aristotle: practical intelligence, virtuous character, good will
oOtherwise, audience doubts credibility, ability to give good advice
oAll three must be present
oNot necessary to be personally virtuous
-Appeal to archetypal figures of authority: God, Aristotle, etc.
-Modesty of character, humility,
-Be knowledgeable – blurs with logos
-Be fair to other views
Arrangement of Arguments
-One-sided – ignores alternative views, adversarial almost, no concession for
anything thing else
-Multi-sided – objects to alternative views
oDialectical almost
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