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Linguistics 09.26.11.docx

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Monica Boyd

Linguistics 2011-09-26 Vowels - Syllabic: they can be the peak of a word( they are sonorous) - vowels are sounds made with the vocal tract more open than for consonant and glide productions - different vowel qualities (sounds) are articulated by varying the placement of the body of the tongue and shaping the lips - Vowel qualities can be further altered by 1. Protruding the lips (rounded vowels) 2. Lowering the velum (nasal vowels) - Vowels can be tense of lax - Complex and simple vowels 1. Simple vowels: the sound stays the same during the period of production of sounds 2. Complex vowels (diphthong): exhibit a change in sound and ends with a glide. Diphthong –major(aj, aw, oj) easier to notice, minor (ej, ow) not so easy to notice - Major parameters(characterization) in vowel articulation: height, place of articulation in oral cavity, tense/lax and rounding of the lips Tense& lax - Tense vowels are generally longer in duration, a little higher in tongue position and in pitch than their corresponding lax vowel. Schwa - [ʌ] and [ə] are neither front, nor back, neither high, nor low. They are mid, central, lax vowels - [ʌ] is often times stressed in English, in words like putt and butt - [ə] is called a schwa or a reduced vowel. Sounds like ‘어’ and is in sofa and telephone Suprasegmentals - besides their inherent features, phones also have specific suprasegmental or prosodic properties - 3 properties of suprasegmentals: pitch, loudness and length Pitch: high or low? Sonorous (voiced, nasal, liquids and nasal) sounds are more manipulative. 1. speakers of any human language have the ability to control the level of pitch 2. It is made by controlling the tension of the vocal folds and the amount of air that passes through the glottis 3. the combination of tense vocal folds and greater air pressure: higher pitch 4. less tense vocal folds and lower air pressure: lower pitch Tone - Can dictate the meaning of a sentence or a word. A cat. A cat? - Tone languages such as mandarin: tone totally dictates the meaning of a word ( 4성조가 ‘ma’에 올라가면 네 단어가 다 다른의미.) - Level tones: high, mid and low tone - Register tones: level tones that signal meaning differences (the diacritic [´] indicates a high tone, and the diacritic [`] indicates a low tone) - Coutour tones: change pitch within a single syllabic element (e.g. Mandarin Ma) - in some languages, tone can be used to signal differences in tense of a verb - Downdrift:
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