Class Notes (834,991)
Canada (508,850)
Linguistics (400)
LIN228H1 (26)
A.Kochetov (15)
Lecture

lin228_handout3.pdf
Premium

5 Pages
133 Views
Unlock Document

Department
Linguistics
Course
LIN228H1
Professor
A.Kochetov
Semester
Fall

Description
LIN228H1F 2012 – Week 3 Kochetov-1 English Vowels (General American/Canadian) Vowel phonemes Vowels are described in terms of height, backness, and rounding.  height: high, mid, or low  backness: front, central, or back  rounding: rounded or unrounded (all of the non-low back vowels are rounded in English) Diphthongs consist of a sequence of a simple vowel and a glide. Simowlels: Diphthongs: front central back front central back i [ɨ] u high ʊ ɪ je ow mid ɛ ǝ [ɚ] ɔj ʌ [ɔ] [ʌj] [ʌw] low æ aj aw ɑ [ɒ] i beat [ buit] boot [ but] ɪ bit [bɪt] ʊ book [bʊk] ej bait [ bejt] ow boat [bowt] ɛ bet [bɛt] ǝ sofa [ sowfǝ] ɔj boy [bɔj] ʌ fun [ fʌn] æ bat [bæt] aj hide [ hajd] ɑ father [fɑðǝɹ] aw loud [lawd] Tense vs. lax: Vowels in English are also distinguished according to whether they are tense or lax. The terms tense and lax do not refer to a consistent phonetic property but rather are used to label sets of vowels that behave differently with respect to the phonology of English.  Tense vowels: i, ej, aj, aw, u, ow, ɑ, ɔj  Lax vowels: ɪ, ɛ, æ, ʌ, ʊ, ǝ LIN228H1F 2012 – Week 3 Kochetov-2 Phonotactic restrictions:  Tense vowels can occur in open (ending in __________________ ) or closed syllables (ending in ____________________).  Lax vowels can only occur in closed syllables.  Schwa is exceptional in this respect. It is a lax vowel which can occur in open syllables. Mid central vowels:  Schwa, [ǝ], is a mid, central, unrounded vowel that occurs in unstressed syllables.  Other vowels are often reduced to schwa in unstressed positions.  Caret, [ʌ], is also a mid, central, unrounded vowel and the two vowels sound very similar.  We will use [ʌ] to transcribe a mid, central vowel that occurs in stressed position and [ǝ] to transcribe a mid, central vowel in unstressed position. Vowels before /ɹ/:  Only some vowels may occur before /ɹ/.  Before syllable-final /ɹ/ there is no contrast between tense and lax vowels that have the same specifications for height and backness (i/ɪ and u/ʊ). The actual vowel quality found in words like beer and poor is somewhere between the two.  The monophthong [ɔ] in Canadian English is limited to the context before /ɹ/, as in court [kɔɹt]. It can be considered an allophone of the diphthong /ow/. Vowels before /l/:  Before /l/, the low back vowel /ɑ/ is usually rounded, [ɒ], as inoll [dɒl]. Allophonic variation in vowels Length:  Tense vowels and diphthongs are always longer than lax vowels. o For simple vowels this inherent length can is indicated with a raised dot in narrow transcription (e.g. [uˑ]). o For diphthongs inherent length is not shown using a raised dot but is conveyed by the use of two characters in the representation of the diphthong (e.g. [ow]).  All vowels are lengthened when they occur before a voiced consonant or syllable finally. This is known as contextual length because it is dependent upon the phonetic environment in which the vowels occur. This is also shown with a raised dot.  If a vowel already has inherent length and is in a position where it is contextually lengthened this additional length is shown with two dots (a colon). When diphthongs receive contextual length this is shown with a raised dot following the vowel portion of the diphthong. LIN228H1F 2012 – Week 3 Kochetov-3 before a voiceless before a voiced consonant syllable fin
More Less

Related notes for LIN228H1

Log In


OR

Join OneClass

Access over 10 million pages of study
documents for 1.3 million courses.

Sign up

Join to view


OR

By registering, I agree to the Terms and Privacy Policies
Already have an account?
Just a few more details

So we can recommend you notes for your school.

Reset Password

Please enter below the email address you registered with and we will send you a link to reset your password.

Add your courses

Get notes from the top students in your class.


Submit