Lecture 3.pdf

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Department
Near & Middle Eastern Civilizations
Course
NMC101H1
Professor
M.A.Pouls- Wegner
Semester
Fall

Description
Lecture #3 September-17-12 2:03 PM Homework: Important Points: Know what a Sothic cycle is and why it is important - 1460 years Lecture Topic: Egyptian Chronology - The Calendar ad Historical Sources During the lecture, take notes here. Insert a sub-page for each lecture topic.  Abbreviations (see tutorial #1)  Chronology conventions ○ 1st millennium BCE = 100 years between years -1000 and -1 ○ 9th century BCE = 900-801 before the Common Era ○ 1st century CE = 1-100 of present day, western, "Julian"calendar  The calendar  Four ways to determine time 1. Agricultural Calendar □ Observes change of seasons □ Three seasons (four months each)  Akhet = "inundation"(7-11) (July to November)  Peret = "emergence" (11-4)  Shemu = "Harvest"/ Summer (4-7) 2. The Lunar Calendar □ Observation of the moon □ Length of a month = 30 days  12 months / year □ For ritual/culticpurposes □ Important festivals  Gave name to month in whichcelebratied ◊ e.g. Theban (Opet-festival) in Second month of Akhet = "Paopi" ◊ Today: Festival of Saint Abu el-Haggag 3. Astronomical Time Keeping □ Day-time: observation of path of the sun/ shadow clocks □ Night time: rising of stars and constellations  36 "Decans" (lat: decem) - 10 day week  + "hour stars" - determine night-time hours □ Sources for star clocks:  Coffin lids from Middle Kingdom onwards(c. 2000 BCE ff)  Astronomical ceilings and nut-pictures in tombs and temples, from New Kingdom (c. 1460 BCE) onwards ◊ Two ideas of cosmos  1, arched woman – Lying beneath her is a man (earth male, sky female) – She is thought to give birth to the sun every morning, it then plunges into the ocean. Then crawls to her foot and climbs back up again. Then travels along belly of the sky goddess. In the evening, swallowed by the sky goddess again. Sun travels back on inside of body, then comes back again in the morning. 4. Other means of measuring hours □ Water-, sand- and s
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