Lecture 8.pdf

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University of Toronto St. George
Near & Middle Eastern Civilizations
M.A.Pouls- Wegner

Lecture Topic: During the lecture, take notes here. Insert a sub-page for each lecture topic. Lecture #8  October-03-12 2:05 PM Homework: Today's Topics: Important Points:  Foundation of the State and Early MAP QUESTION ON FINAL TERM TEST Dynastic Period (Dyn 1-3) Continued  Lecture Topic: Foundation of the State and Early Dynastic Period (Dyns. 1-3) Continued During the lecture, take notes here. Insert a sub-page for each lecture topic.  Beginning of so-called "historical period"  "Dynasty 0" = (essentially) "Naqada III" (c.3200-3050 BCE)  Names difficultto read --> not every book gives same names  Also Sequence still disputed: 1. Scorpion I 2. Hathor 3. Irj (-Hor) 4. Ka 5. Scorpion II 6. Narmer  Egypt traded with Palestine at this time ○ Set up colonies (/trade out posts) ○ Disappear in Dyn. 1  Archaeological finds --> mostly Hierakonpolis and Abydos  Royal imagery (associated with these early kings) as far north as Memphis ○ = capital of Old Kingdom  Question of unified culture all the way up to Buto  ...Royal tombs at Abydos ○ Tomb U-J of Scorpion I  12 rooms, 66.4 sq.m.  Many artifacts in bone and ivory  400 imported (wine?) jars from Palestine  Suggested close ties and trade  Earliest Writing ○ Hieroglyphs on royal seals, labels, potmarks  Identify goods and materials collected for and by state ○ Writing, like art, ONLY in royal contexts  State use ○ Functioningadministrative/taxation system by Dyn. 0  Question of Foreign Influence ○ Monumental architecture  "Palace façade" tombs ○ Artistic motifs ○ Writing ○ Pottery styles ○ Imported materials  Late Predynastic UE urban and culture centers ○ Hierakonpolis - Cultic Center  Elaborated mud-brick niche-façade □ Entrance to palace?  Ritual Installation? --> date: Khasekhemuy (last king of Dyn. 2, c.2650 BCE) ○ Hieroglyphic symbol of king was the flag pole  Dynasty 1 (c.3000-2890) ○ Sudden proliferation of writing ○ Capital of Memphis founded?  Herodotus ascribes to Menes --> Mn-nfr ○ King-lists and Manetho ascribe "unification" to Menes  Long thought to be Narmer  Kings of Dyn. 1 □ (Hor-) Aha (?) □ Djer □ Djet □ Den □ Mer(et)neith □ Anedjib □ Semerkhet □ Qa'a  ...but what about Hor-Aha? □ Significant:  His Tomb (or cenotaph?) ◊ Earliest in Memphite necropolis of Saqqara  Ivory label of Hor-Aha ◊ Royal Nebti-name mn  Mnj = Menes? □ Yet: NMC 101 - Land of the Pharaohs Page 1 □ Yet:  Still several centers of culture and wealth (Abydos, Saqqara, Hierakonpolis) ◊ Less centralization thanin OK (old kingdom) ○ Tombs of Dynasties 0-1 at Abydos  Capital likely in Memphite region □ Tombs of officials from Dyn. 1 onwards  But Abydos = burial place of early kings (of Dyn. 1 + two of Dyn. 2)  Tradition of Dyn. 0 □ But tombs reflect political order on a new scale  Only subterranean chambersof mudbrickremain  Originally roofed and covered by mounds of sand  Stone stelae with royal names (--> cf. Djet) in front  Rows of subsidiary graves surrounded each tomb □ Number increased, then decreased:  Aha: 33 (graves) ◊ --> 25 young males killed at time of buri
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