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Near & Middle Eastern Civilizations
M.A.Pouls- Wegner

October 18, 2011 Khentkawes (Queen): - Giza - Connection between Dynasty 4 and Dynasty 5 - Town for those that serviced her cult - Not a ruler, but definitely a valued member of the royal family - Wife of Userkaf? Related to Menkaure? Grandaughter of Khufu? - There’s another Khenkawes buried at Abusir Fifth Dynasty: - Papyrus Westcar: story of the origins of Dynasty 5 rulers, Prince Hardjedef tells Khufu that the first three kings (Userkaf, Sahure, Neferirkara) of Dynasty 5 will be triplets born of a union between Re and the wife of a priest of Re - Emphasis on the solar cult of Re - Names compounded with the name of Re - Withdrawal of the members of the royal family from high offices - Son of Re titulary becomes prominent - Construction of pyramids and sun temple (explicitly solar) - Major new emphasis on the sun god Re, but the king also paid greater attention to local deitiesmaking donations (often land) and exempting them from tax - Each king reigned 25-30 years - Monuments not made out of monumental stones - Chronology:  Userkaf  Sahure  Neferirkare  Shepseskare (omitted from Abydos lists)  Neferefre/Raneferef  Neuserre (omitted from Saqqara list)  Menkauhor  Djedkare  Unas page 1 Pyramid Complexes: - Userkaf:  Built pyramid at North Saqqara, situated his pyramid really close to the Step Pyramid of Djoser  Mortuary temple moved to the south, mortuary temple of the Djoser complex is also not on the east side  Relating back to the ideas of the afterlife of Dynasty 3  Color symbolisms (ground (basalt, black), top (limestone, white))  Offering chapel separated from mortuary temple  Subsidiary pyramid  Causeway - Sahure:  Pyramid also at Saqqara (Abusir to be exact)  Valley temple at edge of Abusir lake  Causeway  Mortuary temple plan: archetype for rest of OK  Many reliefs depicting the king’s power over chaos  Structure of the pyramid complexes set in Dynasty 4 - Neferirkare (Abusir)  Pyramid temple yielded the most important group of administrative papyri known from the OK  Pyramid is unfinished however - Shepseskara (Abusir):  Most ephemeral of the Abusir group  No textual or archaeological evidence of his sun-temple found  Brief reign - Neferefre/Raneferef (Abusir):  Very vrief reignpyramid did not progress beyond lower most course  Many papyri found in pyramid temple, comparable to those of Neferirkare - Neuserre (Abusir):  Sun temple at Abu Gurab, north of Abusir - Menkauhor (Southern Abusir? North Saqqara?):  Pyramid not found, location only suggested  Last king to build a sun temple Did not - Djedkare Isesi (South Saqqara)  Some of his officials buried at Abusir build sun  Modest size adopted by all the remaining kings of OK besides Unas temples here and  The Mxims of Ptahhotep (summary of the conduct of a successful vizier) beyond ascribed to his vizier - Unas  Pyramid at Saqqara, south-western corner of Djoser’s  Even smaller than his predecessor page 2  Long causeway has reliefs depicting very scrawny people (foreigners?) Juxtapose the ma’at of the Egyptians?  Valley temples right up against the canals  First time the burial chamber decorated (inscribed with pyramid text: earliest large religious composition front ancient Egypt)spells, most associate with Osiris; might be developed before the reign of Unas Sun Temples: - Each king had a sun temple (6 of the first 7 kings) - Worship the king as the sun god or the son of the sun god - Endowed wit
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