Lecture 8 - Old Kingdom

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Near & Middle Eastern Civilizations
Zoe Mc Quinn

NMC343 -Ancient Egypt I Thursday Nov 1, 2012 Lecture 8 - Old Kingdom Djedefre • Successor/son of Khufu • Transferred his court an pyramid to Abu Rowash • First king to bear the new royal titles “Son of Re” • Attaching himself to solar cult at Heliopolis • Why does he bear this title? • Might be because Khufu was such an important king • Some references of deification of Khufu during his reign • Meaning he is the son of Khufu, and khufu is a god, and he is the true heir of the throne • Reigned for 8 years/11 years/21 years? • Manetho says 8 Archaeological evidence for 11 • • May be possible given interpretations of 21 • **Image: Face of Djedefre • Gentleness, melancholy features Unfinished pyramid? • • We know he started his pyramid • For a long time assumed unfinished • The french/swiss team found a lot of evidence that suggests the pyramid was finished Activity up until the 2nd centuryAD and during this pyramid they stripped the pyramid for • stone • Hints that he actually did reign a long time • Image: Sphinx of Hetepheres II atAbu Rowash: First Sphinx? • Daughter of Khufu • Married to her half brother Djedefre • Solidifies his rule Khafre • Another son of Khufu • Khafre returned to Giza • Reign may have lasted as long as 30 years • Did he usurp the throne? • He finished construction of boat pits of Djedefre • Built and completed his own pyramid at Giza • Sphinx of Khafre • Face gives clue to which king it is: either Djedefre or Khafre • Sphinxes started to be built during formers reign, and it may be for his father at his fathers burial site • It looks like Khafre usurped the sphinx given the causeway is not straight • Stylistically it looks like Djedefre • Valley temple of Khafre • Made of giant monolithic stone (solid stone blocks weighing tons) • All encased in red (?) granite NMC343 -Ancient Egypt I Thursday Nov 1, 2012 Lecture 8 - Old Kingdom • Floor is alabaster • Built on ground that is higher than Khufu’s - looks taller Called his pyramid “Khafre is the greatest” • • From this point on subterranean passages become the common norm • Inside burial chamber the sarcophagus is inlaid into ground • Image: Statue • Polished stone with seated king • Hand curled around the deed of Egypt that you run with in heb-sed • Horus on the back of his head shows the god embracing the king in his embodiment of the falcon • Showing that link in a 3D image Semetawy - unity of the two lands • • For khafre’s pyramid complex things are less organized • Buried whether they can find place - free for all • See rock cut tombs for the first tiem Image: Ceremonial mace-head with the name of King Khafre • • 4th Dynasty, 2550 BC • Used for ritual tribute to the gods • Has cartouche and serekh of khafre Bikheris/Baka (Bikka) • Seems to be a king between Khafre and Menkaure • But we have no archaeological evidence of anyone named like this • According to Manetho he is the son of Khafre No evidence contemporary to prove this • • Evidence at Wadi Hammamat where we have the name Baefre; his grafiti lies between Menkaure and Khafre • Unfinished pyramid at Zawiet el-Aryan • Controversial evidence • One fragment found at the turn of the century - no one knows where it is, we only have the line drawing • Some authors translate this as Baka • Son of Djedefre who started building his own pyramid? Sethka • • Son of Khufu, must be Manetho’s Bikheris Menkaure • Son of Khafre Greek traditions regards Menkaure as a pious ruler compared to the tyrants Khufu and Khafre • • His statuary displays new proportions • Little tiny heads compared to shoulders • Activity outside of Egypt His pyramid is smallest at Giza • NMC343 -Ancient Egypt I Thursday Nov 1, 2012 Lecture 8 - Old Kingdom • Probably came to throne late in his life and probably having seen unfinished predecessors de- cided to go smaller • Encased in red granite fromAswan instead of limestone! • Coming from over 500km away • His temples all made of mudbrick • Ailing quickly and needed to finish fast? • Financial burdens of building pyramids? • Image: Triad statues of Menkaure • King standing with goddess hathor (recognized with horned crown and sundisk) • She is sitting rather than standing in Th. Emiddle • Embracing as a mother or a wife? Other female with hare-nome representing a nome; probably had statue for ever nome • • Can tell for which nome given the crown he wears • Image: another triad • She is holding his hand Image: Menkaure and female • • Hathor? • Wife? • Embracing as triad 1 mentioned above Image: head of menkaure? • • Alabaster • Has a luminous quality which light can shine through • Image: Fragment of a magic knife (peseshkef) inscribed for Menkaura’s mother, Khamererneb- ty I • Beloved of king • Buried at least his mother and 2 other queens in pyramids beside his Shepseskaf • Brother of Menkaure • Reign of 4 years • Mastaba at el’Fara’un (south Saqqara) • For some reason decided not o build a pyramid • Possibly because of his age? Knew he wasn’t going to reign long • Or a conscious psychological break from pyramid tradition • Mastaba is still big - almost 100m long! • 2 steps • Linking himself to ancient traditions atAbydos • Burial chamber found with sarcophagus inside! • Decorated with palace facade • First sarcophagus found like this • No real pattern as to going between brother-to-brother succession or father-to-son Not based on age • • Ability and blood-line? NMC343 -Ancient Egypt I Thursday Nov 1, 2012 Lecture 8 - Old Kingdom Thamphthis/Khentkawes of Giza • Thamphthis could have been queen Khentkawes I Khentkawes I could have been the mother of Thamphthis who was the son of king Shepseskaf • • Image: Tomb • South of causeway of Khafre’s pyramid • Build on rocky outcroppings, with another step (just like Shepseskaf) Image: Tomb door • • Khentkawes shown sitting on thrown with uraeus • She is represented as a king • Ruled in her own right • Her tomb site is venerated into the 6th dynasty • The priests and families who live here and the kings honor her • She is remembered as someone who is worthy of praise and worship • Her cult goes on long after the big pyramids and their cults Government and Economic activities in the Old Kingdom • Centre of the administraton in this period was the palace • The principal aim of the administration was to organize the good supply for the king’s palace and to maintain the king’s cult • From the 4th dynasty the highest office held the title TAti, conventionally translates as vizier • Royal construction activities are concentrated in the area between meidum andAbu Rowash • Call it the greater Saqqara necropolis • Cemeteries and sites outside of this area were ‘provincial’ Administration of the Old Kingdom • Loose control: • The provincial administration was under the control of local chiefs • The coal chiefs were responsible tot he cereal government, but more or less free to do what they liked inside of their area O
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