January 17th.docx

5 Pages
Unlock Document

University of Toronto St. George
Near & Middle Eastern Civilizations
M.A.Pouls- Wegner

January 17 , 2012 Foreign Relations with the Southlands (MK): - Southern boundary: 1 cataract st I. Beneath the 1 cataract is Lower Nubia (geographical area: “Wawet”) - Riverine settlement - Settlement concentrated on floodplain - Corridor to Upper Nubia (South) - Access to mineral resources (east & west) through Wadi el-Allaqi  Diorite & gneiss used extensively for statuary  Carnelian  highly priced for jewelries  Gold  used for carrying diplomatic relationship - C-Group culture: between Aswan and 2 ndcataract  Indigenous  Arises at the end of Dynasty 5  Cattle is very important in everyday life and religion  Egyptian objects found in tombs  Biographies of late Old Kingdom Egyptian officials refer to well-established communities - Nebhepetre Mentuhotep and Amenemhat I both tried to conquer Wawat, by Senwosret I, there is clear evidence of an Egyptian settlement  Middle Kingdom: Egyptian built and stationed at the fortress at Buhen  huge expenditure  Incorporated areas of housing, industrial areas, administrative areas, some even had temples  Perceived main threat from the land, not from the water  No prototypes from Egypt, where did they learn how to build this? Inspirations from Syro-Palestine? Learned during FIP?  Barracks for soldiers, bigger houses for officials  Trade with C-Group culturesgood relationship with the C-Group peoplewhat are the fortresses for if not against the C-Group people  Who were they protecting against? To guard against a potential invasion from Upper Nubia (Kerma)? To safeguard Egyptian access to material resources? To control the flow of tradescollection of taxes/duties? II. Second cataract: south of 2dcataract is Upper Nubia - Semna Gorge fortresses: build primarily in the reign of Senwosret III (Ex. Uronarti Fort)  Almost all face southheaviest defense on the south side  Execration texts: lists of enemies inscribed on pottery objects or figurines to ensure magical destruction of enemies by burying or smashing the pots or figurines  Mentions “Aamu” (Asiatics)  Semna dispatches (Senwosret III): a set of military letters and accounts sent from Semna to Thebes in Dynasty 13  Considered Semna Gorge as the Egyptian border/frontier, control flow of people (presumably with trade goods)controlled traffic flowing northwards  How rigorously Egyptians policed the Nubiansmaintained surveillance over the area  Medjiau: some are friendly some are hostile  Mixed group of nomadic pastoralists organized into groups  Semna dispatches revealed that the Egyptians kept an eye on them  Batn el Hagar (just South of 2dcataract)  Second Intermediate Period: C-Group culture shifted their alliance from Egypt to Kerma as Egypt erdracted control from Lower Nubia III.Third cataract: South of the 3cataract is Kerma, the capital of Nubia, Kingdom of Kush - Statue of Lady Sennuwy (known wife of an Egyptian elite of Middle Kingdom) found at Kermaprobably imported and brought to Kerma as art object - Multi-functional site, urban centre - Have an indigenous culture, no Egyptian occupation - Deffufa (mud brick structure): part of a temple complex - Ivory inlays from furniture: although there are some Egyptian features, there are many differences - Buried the deceased in beds, some have horses buried with them (buried standing up)very different mortuary traditions - Very large mortuary architecture for rulerscomplex socio-economic society - Thousands and thousands of cattle sacrificed, many human sacrifices found at burial sites Upper Egypt Egypt Lower Nubia • Early Kerma • Old Kingdom • Hiatus • Middle Kerma • First • C-Group Intermediate • Classic Kerma • C- Period, Group/Kerma Middle Kingdom
More Less

Related notes for NMC101H1

Log In


Don't have an account?

Join OneClass

Access over 10 million pages of study
documents for 1.3 million courses.

Sign up

Join to view


By registering, I agree to the Terms and Privacy Policies
Already have an account?
Just a few more details

So we can recommend you notes for your school.

Reset Password

Please enter below the email address you registered with and we will send you a link to reset your password.

Add your courses

Get notes from the top students in your class.