NMC273Y1 Lecture Notes - Lecture 9: Banu Thaqif, Fadak, Salah

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I. Relations with Mecca and the Jews of Medina: is there a connection?
- Hijra 622
- Relations with Mecca
- Raiding/razwa activity (ghazw) vs Mecca begins soon after arrival in
Medina: Why?
- Economic reasons? –razwa was a tribal thing and it was way for
lesser tribes to get richer
- Religious or pol motives? –way to punish Meccans who have
opposed God’s will –or policy to capture Mecca –or connection between events and
treatment of Jewish tribe
-paired off with the Wajar
-prophet consolidated his power in Medina and surrounding area –period of expansion
- Evidence for focus on Mecca
- Qibla changed just before Badr (Ibn Ishaq, pp. 258-59 and 289)
-connected to fact Jews wouldn’t accept his leadership
- Creation of link between Mecca & Abraham - Ka’ba –trying to signal a
back to Abraham –only in Islam says Ibrahim made it
- Possible connection btw these campaigns vs Mecca and the actions vs.
Jews?
- Pattern: increasing independence of new community and self-definition
II. Raiding activity and Jews
- Nakhla 624 and change of qibla
- Fact finding mission re Quraysh activities; no plan to attack Meccans
according to Ibn Ishaq (287) –information gathering
- Expedition encounters a Meccan caravan
- During truce months –three or four months, Mecca had a truce so
commerce could be carried out
- Prophet receives revelation (Q 2:214)
“They will ask you about the sacred month and war in it. Say,
war therein is a serious matter, but keeping people
from the way of God and disbelieving in Him and in the
sacred mosque and driving out his people
therefrom is more serious with God.”
- Significance
Break of Pagan customs
Mecca led to battle of Bedr
- Change of qibla from Jerusalem to Ka’ba either in Rajab in the 17th mo
AH (Ibn Ishaq, 258) or in Sha’ban, beginning of 18th mo (Ibn
Ishaq, 289)
- Badr 624 and Banu Qaynuqa
- Attack on large Meccan caravan (carried money and merchandise), led
by Abu
Sufyan b. Harb, leader of ‘Abd
Shams/Umayya and father of Mu’awiya (Umayyads) -escaped, but
Meccans sent release force that Muhammad met at wells of Badr
- Muslims at Wells of Badr
- Muslim victory
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- Significance
-first defeat for the Qurayysh
-sign of Prophethood
-role of arbitrator –early inditation of his military leadership
-Battle of Booty –one fifth of booty to tribe
-one of basis of buwan
- Banu Qaynuqa’
-Jews were merchants
- Jews expelled from Medina to Khaybar
- Expulsion resulted from a quarrel between a Muslim and a Jew,
one of the craftsmen in market
- Jews had been supported by Ibn Ubayy (leader of Medina,
considered
one who had accepted islam but wasn’t sincre, called
minakikuun/hippocrites), Muhammads chief rival among the
Medinans (Hodgson, I, 178) and leader of munafiqun
(people who were Muslim in name but not wholehearted)
- Significance?
-Prophet didn’t accept these people and bended trust
-by expelling them, it opened up possibilities for muhajiruun
- Uhud 625 and Banu’l-Nadir
- Quraysh retaliate; response to Badr. Their reputation at stake.
- Meccan raiders (200) led by Abu Sufyan approach outskirts of Medina
near quarter of Jewish clan of Banu’l-Nadir
- Abu Sufyan retreated; Muh pursued Meccans, but failed to overtake
them
- Meccans return and enter oasis without opposition, camp at hill called
Uhud
- Meccan attack led by Khalid b. al-Walid (on side of Meccans now), who
later
became leading Muslim general; so Khalid originally in opposition to Muh
- Result was indecisive –Meccans won but withdrew
- Meccan-Medinan rivalry in effort to recruit tribesmen from surrounding
regions
- Muh became involved in blood feud with Banu Amir
- Banu’l-Nadir 625
- Pretext: Banu’l Nadir in collusion with munafiqun
- B. Nadir allied with B. Amir and therefore implicated in blood
feud although they had agreed to contribute to blood
money
- B. Nadir expelled to Khaybar after a 15-day siege
- Booty, including land, divided among muhajirun
- Khandaq 627 (siege of Medina or Battle of the Trench/Khandaq (Khandaq a
Persian word) and Banu Qurayza
- Meccan forces, supplemented by nomadic tribesmen
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