Renal System

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Christopher Perumalla

The biggest responsibility of the kidneys is the removal of waste products and the homeostatic regulation of fluid and electrolyte balance which is essential for survival If the metabolic wastes are allowed to accumulate they can become toxic in the body Disturbances in blood volume and ion levels will cause serious medical problems before accumulation of metabolic wastes reach toxic levels The distribution of water and solutes in the bodyAbout 60 of the total body weight in an average individual is made up of water Depending on our weight the can be a range of water content from 50 to 80 People who are at the low end of the spectrum include individuals who are overweight because fat cells contain very little water People who are at the high end of the spectrum are athletes because they have lots of muscle cells which possess lots of water The variability among individuals is a function of the amount of adipose tissue because water and oil do not mix There are also differences in water content with age For example 70 of a newborns body weight is made of water Gender also plays a role in water content Females possess more fat and so a little lesswater content than males The fluid intake is balanced by fluid output If this balance did not exist we would constantly bloat when we take in a lot of water or shrink when we deprive ourselves of water for prolonged periods of time There is various sources for fluid input or output We take in about 22 L of water everyday and release about 03 L of water through the process of glucose oxidation and energy released in the tissue However we do not bloat when we take in 22 L of water because this volume is balaced by fluid outputWe lose some water via the lungs during respiration when the water is moistened and skin perspiration Since we are not aware of water loss via lungs and skin it is called water loss in insensible areas We also lose some water through feces and urine biggest source of water loss The volume of urine can be modified to suit body needs The kidneys constantly monitor the internal environment as well as the ionic composition to keep them constant by regulating the output of urine This is extremely important for the functioning of nerve cells and muscle cells
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