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Lecture 10

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University of Toronto St. George
Michelle French

Lecture 10 Circulation and Blood Flow  “movement of fluid”  Overall understanding:  How the fluids and nutrients get circulated within the body  What are the differences in vessels?  How do the different vessels deal with blood pressure?  How does nutrient and fluid flow actually occur?  What happens when something goes wrong?  Distribution of water between intracellular and extracellular compartments  Water excretion per 24 hours  Intake 1.5L-2.5L of water per day via GI tract (food + drink)  The majority is absorbed into interstitial fluid (11-13L)  Interstitial fluid can enter cells (intracellular) via pressure gradient (27-30L)  Interstitial fluid can enter blood plasma (3.0-3.5L)  Water is excreted by the kidneys (0.6-1.5l)  Water is excreted by lungs in the form of humidity (0.3-0.4L)  Water is excreted by the skin in the form of sweat (0.2-1L)  Water is excreted by GI tract in the form of feces (0.1-0.2L)  Cardiovascular System Anatomy  Exchange takes place within the capillaries beds  Arteries and Veins are almost always in proximity to one another  Arteries do not have valves except for the Aortic valve as the heart generates pressure for flow and the inter media maintains that pressure, Veins however need Venous Valves to overcome the gravity force to direct blood back to the heart  Skeletal muscle “milks” blood in veins toward the heart  The cardiovascular system has three types of blood vessels  Arteries (and Arterioles) – carry blood away from the heart, fed by the Aorta  Capillaries – where nutrient and gas exchange happens between plasma and ECF  Veins (and Venules) – carry blood towards the heart via Superior and Inferior Vena Cava  Blood vessels and function  There are significant anatomical differences between blood vessels  The Aorta, an elastic artery and one of the biggest of its size directs blood away from the heart to Muscular Artery and eventually small Arteriol
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