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Political Science
Sophia Moreau

January 24 Democratization The Third Wave Samuel Huntington Wave Definition: a group of transitions from non-democratic to democratic regimes that occur within a specified period of time, and that significantly outnumber transitions in the opposite directions during that period. There have been three waves: 1828-1942 peaking 1924, 1942-1973 peaking 1958, 1974-present not yet peaking. First Wave: resulted because of industrialization Second Wave:After WWII, countries became democratic in two ways: imposition (Germany, Japan and Italy) & decolonization (Ghana, Malaysia, Nigeria and India). Third Wave: Started with the end of dictatorship in Portugal in 1974.At the time of the beginning of the third wave, there were only 41 democratic countries, but has since then expanded dramatically.An enormous moment was the collapse of the Berlin Wall. Many Cold War proxy wars were fought inAfrica, such asAngola where Cuba sent soldiers, SouthAfrica sent soldiers, and even the CIAwas involved. But the conflicts ended with the end of the USSR. In Benin a group of civil society created a conference and declared itself democratic. South Africa Nelson Mendela was released, and the first elections were held. Before this, in 1990, there were only three democraticAfrican countries. It start
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