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Lecture #4

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University of Toronto St. George
Political Science
La Haine

The Liberal Solution - Domestic analogy: institutions solve the problem of anarchy - The quality of institutions affect the stability of the solution - Domestic structures matter; institutions matter - Rights exist independent of power - Progress is possible Immanuel Kant (1724-1804) Kants perpetual peace: - Kant rejects the separation between the moral imperative and the political realm (Machiavelli) - Following self interest will lead to the perpetual peace in the vast grave that swallows both the atrocities and their perpetrators - There is unavoidable historical progress towards world federation - but we have the obligation as rational human beings to speed the process. - To reach peace: The civil constitution of every state should be republican - A world federation should be established - Economic and social interaction across borders should be encouraged - Modern reading of the Kantian Peace: democracy, trade, international organizations Adam Smith (1776) - The Wealth of Nations Economics and Peace - Laissez-faire: minimal governmental intervention in economic affairs - Humans are rational prot maximizers - Trade will lead to benets - War will erode these benets -ergo The more we trade, the more we have to lose if there is war, so - More trade leads to less war The Wilsonian Moment (January 8, 1918) Woodrow Wilson The speech on the 14 points. 1. Absolute freedom of navigation upon the seas: The removal, so far as possible, or all economic barriers and the establishment of an equaliy of trade conditions 2. Self determination: a stict observation of the principle that in determining all such questions of soverignty 3. A general association of nations must be formed under specic covenents for the purpose of affording mutual guarantees of political independence and territorial integrity to great and small states alike -> Collective security Neoliberalism - Robert Keohane - A new, more scientic liberalism - Can we think of structural conditions that would induce cooperation - without relying on assumptions regarding human nature, morality, or natural rights? - Institutions!
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