• Even in the most established democratic system, there has been wide
spread alienation, nostalgia for previous regimes that had delivered
rapid economic growth
• At the same time, there has been a broad agreement among citizens
that they have no knowledge of politics.
• Canadian auditDeclining levels of citizen engagement, universal
syndrome among democratic regimes
o This brings questions of the democratic outcome
o The utility of the concept
o Common problem: The proliferation of democracy has been worn
out by democratic victories-Arab Spring. Even among the most
established democracies, there has been declining legitimacy
• Consolidation of quality of democratic performance
o Andreas Schler measuring consolidation (analysis)
Concept of democratic consolidation has become a very
Introduced as a thin concept whose purpose is to look at
regime stabilization, thought to provide answers to critical
• At what point can democrats relax?
Consolidation of democracy became an “obese” concept
• Prolem with equating all of democratic problems
Two successful alternations between two
groupsdemocracy is consolidated.
Narrow measure but escape the technical popular support
which is also used to measure democratic consolidation
o Behavioral indicates are more important than attitude indicators
o Analogy: Doctors look for symptoms that would affect the patient
Scholars would take the same approach to democracies…
looking for democratic diseases.
Symptoms: (signs of democratic breakdown)
• Anti-democratic behavior political actors engaging
in anti democratic behavior.
• Use of violence (core institution failure)
• Assassination of political opponents
• Intimidation of voters
• Use of law against candidates.
• Transgression of authority
First question a doctor asks a patient:
• Self perception: where does it hurt?
• Self knowledge Is a good indicator. o Raises question of the utility of the empirical foundation to
• Patterns of transition vs. patterns of consolidation
o Japanese embraced defeat and an enthusiastic defeat
• Temptation to link the LDP corruption to the fact that Japanense did
not fight for democratic institutions
• In contrast, South Koreans protested (with the leaders being students)
and the reqlinuishing of power by military leaders
• The Mid 90’s, many were disillusioned with the democratic system
established. If democracy can’t generate economic growth/material
needs, then what good is it?
• Democracy was close to deeply consolidated: women struggling for
What kinds of transitions best facilitate democratic consolidation?
• Democratizationtalks about Taiwan as a model for relatively peaceful
evolutionary form of consolidation.
• Difficulties of measuring consolidation
o US needed a century and a civil war to consolidate democracy
o States have been born and regressed as well for democracies
• Taiwan is struggling to consolidate effective government
• Political transformation includes the question of the level of violence.
The extent of widespread violence leads to failed democratic
• Patterns of transition in South Korean case
o One of the nicer theoretical discussions is found I nthe writings
of Adam Prezorski
• Adam Prezorski
o Defines transition as: getting to democracy by not getting killed
by those who are armed and have productive machinery.
Final destination depends on the path to democracy
o “in most countries, transitions have gotten stuck”
o Politically relevant forces that subject to the uncertaintiy in
democratic system (will they comply with the outcome?)
o When most conflicts are processed through democratic
institutions, then democracy has been consolidated
o 5 outcomes:
Structure of conflict is suc