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Lecture#6-South Korea

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Political Science
Lynette Ong

Lecture#6-South Korea • Even in the most established democratic system, there has been wide spread alienation, nostalgia for previous regimes that had delivered rapid economic growth • At the same time, there has been a broad agreement among citizens that they have no knowledge of politics. • Canadian auditDeclining levels of citizen engagement, universal syndrome among democratic regimes o This brings questions of the democratic outcome o The utility of the concept o Common problem: The proliferation of democracy has been worn out by democratic victories-Arab Spring. Even among the most established democracies, there has been declining legitimacy • Consolidation of quality of democratic performance o Andreas Schler measuring consolidation (analysis)  Concept of democratic consolidation has become a very popular topic.  Introduced as a thin concept whose purpose is to look at regime stabilization, thought to provide answers to critical questions. • At what point can democrats relax?  Consolidation of democracy became an “obese” concept • Prolem with equating all of democratic problems o Huntington  Two successful alternations between two groupsdemocracy is consolidated.  Narrow measure but escape the technical popular support which is also used to measure democratic consolidation o Behavioral indicates are more important than attitude indicators o Analogy: Doctors look for symptoms that would affect the patient  Scholars would take the same approach to democracies… looking for democratic diseases.  Symptoms: (signs of democratic breakdown) • Anti-democratic behavior  political actors engaging in anti democratic behavior. • Use of violence (core institution failure) • Assassination of political opponents • Intimidation of voters • Use of law against candidates. • Transgression of authority  First question a doctor asks a patient: • Self perception: where does it hurt? • Self knowledge Is a good indicator. o Raises question of the utility of the empirical foundation to measure consolidation • Patterns of transition vs. patterns of consolidation o Japanese embraced defeat and an enthusiastic defeat • Temptation to link the LDP corruption to the fact that Japanense did not fight for democratic institutions • In contrast, South Koreans protested (with the leaders being students) and the reqlinuishing of power by military leaders • The Mid 90’s, many were disillusioned with the democratic system established. If democracy can’t generate economic growth/material needs, then what good is it? • Democracy was close to deeply consolidated: women struggling for their rights. What kinds of transitions best facilitate democratic consolidation? • Democratizationtalks about Taiwan as a model for relatively peaceful evolutionary form of consolidation. • Difficulties of measuring consolidation o US needed a century and a civil war to consolidate democracy o States have been born and regressed as well for democracies o Volatile • Taiwan is struggling to consolidate effective government • Political transformation includes the question of the level of violence. The extent of widespread violence leads to failed democratic transitions • Patterns of transition in South Korean case o One of the nicer theoretical discussions is found I nthe writings of Adam Prezorski • Adam Prezorski o Defines transition as: getting to democracy by not getting killed by those who are armed and have productive machinery.  Final destination depends on the path to democracy o “in most countries, transitions have gotten stuck” o Politically relevant forces that subject to the uncertaintiy in democratic system (will they comply with the outcome?) o When most conflicts are processed through democratic institutions, then democracy has been consolidated o 5 outcomes:  Structure of conflict is suc
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