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Lecture

LEC 8-Motivation


Department
Psychology
Course Code
PSY100H1
Professor
Michael Inzlicht

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Motivation
z Refers to the moving force that energizes behaviour
Direction or goal of motives
Strength of motives
z Motives reflect biological and psychosocial needs
Maslow·s Hierarchy of Needs
Hypothalamic Regulation of Eating
z Hypothalamus receives information regarding nutrient levels in body
Lateral region
Stimulation induces eating
Lesions of the lateral region produce starvation
Ventromedial region
Lesions induce overeating
Stimulation inhibits eating
Sexual Motivation
z Hormones
Organizational effects: prenatal exposure to androgens alters the neural circuits in brain and
spinal cord
Adult behaviour of androgenized subject is masculine
In the absence of androgens, ´Nature·s impulse is to create a female«µ
Activational effects: alteration of adult levels of hormones can alter the intensity of a behaviour
that is modulated by that hormone
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z Pheromones
z Environmental cues
Evolutionary Analysis of Human Sexual Behaviour
z Parental investment
z Patterns of sexual activity
z Differences in mate preferences
z Jealousy
Sexual Orientation
z Sexual Orientation is the direction of attraction for a sexual partner
Homosexuality is the attraction for a person of the same-sex
z Twin studies document a biological basis for homosexuality
z Hormonal responses differ between homosexual and heterosexual men
Affiliation Motives
z The need to associate with others and maintain social bonds
z Companionship, friendship and love
z Evolutionary bases
z Safety, grooming, survival
z Rejection, loss of intimate, loneliness
z Anxiety, jealousy and depression
Achievement Motives
z Need for achievement refers to the need to do well, to succeed, and to avoid failure
Persons who have a high level of need for achievement tend to
Choose moderately difficult tasks
Enjoy being challenged
Avoid failure
Work more persistently
Enjoy success
Emotion
z Emotions reflect a ´stirred upµ state
z Emotions have valence, positive or negative
z Thought to have 3 components; physiological arousal, subjective experience and behavioural
expression
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