•Freud’s theories usually not scientific
•Freud thought sexual drive and motivation formed personality
•4 contributions of Freud we just can’t ignore *Note: these are 4 big ones, of many:
•1. First, to say how important a role unconscious plays in human behaviour. In order to be
scientific phyc needs to look at observable behaviour to look at probabilities that these are true
theories. Even through all this--unconscious impo. Part of human behav.
•2. First to use psychotherapy as a real type of therapy. Treatment of disorders through talking--
respond better that to drugs or surgery. FREUD is grandfather of psychotherapy. Can change
neurotransmitters etc. Psychotherapy relieves stress, anxiety, which makes ppl. Psychologically
•3. First 5 years of our experiences the most important. Thought personality built in first 5 years
of lives. Today, most agree 5 years very important.
•5. Defense mechanisms-denial, displacement etc.
Important of early experiences “critical periods”
•Critical periods: this concept suggests that the brain is set to acquire a function during a limited
period of time.
•If key experiences do not occur during a critical time period, the function may not develop or
may not be fully developed
•Prof. Urbzat divided them into critical periods:
•A. Of necessary stimulation ex. Certain period/window to develop vision in cats we know
•B. Critical periods of vulnerability--where we don’t want any certain type of stimulation ie:
esp. In womb
•Some refer to this as “sensitive period”
•Example: GENIE, a case of neglect. Father had paranoid schizophrenia. Daughter lived in a
closet and nobody spoke to her. When Genie was discovered she was below physical
development. Stunted mental development. Made some gains in language, but couldn’t make
many. Hadn’t been exposed to language. Critical period for language development before age
of 5. Eg. Language learning-all kinds of evidence of children being able to learn a new
language faster than adults.
•Sensitive period-b/c genie wasn’t exposed to language then, she never developed necessary
ability yet she did make some gains later in lide
•She never developed speech more than a 2 year old
•Also looked at cases of feral children who have never made gains in language
•An example of a critical period of vulnerability--measles contracted during certain fetal periods
can cause mental retardation
•Fetal alcohol syndrome-->alcohol more likely during later periods of fetus development than
•We use these methodologies whenever we are interested in changes over time