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Lecture 8

PSY230H1 Lecture Notes - Lecture 8: Unconditional Positive Regard, Humanistic Psychology, Existential TherapyPremium


Department
Psychology
Course Code
PSY230H1
Professor
Amanda Sharples
Lecture
8

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Lecture 7 humanistic approach
Humanistic Psychology focus on positive aspects of human experience.
1. Henry Murray was one of the early founders of existential psychology (early
approach of humanistic psychology) and he proposed some important concepts
in early humanistic approach(theories).
I. Humanistic focusing on human beings rather than other
species.
II. Holistic look at an individual as one system instead of
separate parts.
III. Historic look through the entire life of an individual, including
the challenges and emotions in their life.
IV. Phenomenology intrinsic experience that one have in
processing the world around them.
V. Real life think people in the real world outside the lab.
VI. Positivity positive (eg. Creativity) instead of negative
experience.
VII. Free will people have freedom to make choices in their life,
regardless of their biological makeup.
VIII. Value internalize the value that one have and guide them
through life.
Famous psychologists in humanistic psychology:
2. Carl Rogers the person centred approach
A psychologist should guide a patient through their difficulties, not
telling them what to do.
Focused on the idea of “self”.
I. Self-worth how much regard one have (positive/negative self
regard) shaped by early childhood experiences.
o Unconditional positive regard
High self-worth. Love and support from parents or
significant others that are independent of good or poor
performances. It provides a sense of safety to explore
new things.
o Conditional positive regard
Low self-worth. Love and support received later in life is
dependent on the performance or it’s dependent.

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II. Self-image who we are at this very moment.
III. Ideal self who we want to be at some point in the future.
Discussion: relationship combining the 3 factors.
Congruent means that the self image matches with the ideal self. A
congruent person can still be willing to do better but also they are happy
with who they are at this very moment.
Incongruent means that the self image does not catch up to the ideal self.
A person that’s incongruent tend to be low on self-worth.
Fully functioning person people who strive and reach an optimal
sense of satisfaction in their lives.
- There are 5 main characteristics
I. Open to experience not afraid to try new things.
II. Existential feeling they are always focusing on what’s
currently going on in their lives and develop meanings.
III. Trust feelings trust our instincts and ability to make
decisions using the existing knowledge.
IV. Creativity being creative and inventive. Congruency and
greater self-worth.
V. Fulfilled life feelings of fulfillment.
Therapeutic approach
- Person-centred Therapy
Nature
Client is in a state of incongruence (eg.depression, anxious)
It’s the therapist’s role to be congruent in the relationship, which
means they should provide genuine and authentic care and
concern to the patient’s feelings, to validate their feelings.
Therapist should provide unconditional positive regard.
Therapist should show empathy.
Does not focus on the unconscious part of the mind (psychoanalysis), but
more on the conscious part of the mind which is trying to achieve as a
better person in life.
3. Abraham Maslow
“Health means more than simply the absence of disease”
We have basic driving forces (needs), but we also have lots of other
needs that contribute to our well being.
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Proposed the Hierarchy of Needs.
Image from web
I. Physiological basic needs
Breathing, food, water, sex, sleep, homeostasis, excretion.
II. Safety the security of making sure the basic needs are satisfied.
Security of: body, employment, resources, morality, the family,
health, property.
III. Love/Belonging
Friendship, family, sexual intimacy.
IV. Esteem have a positive sense of who we are.
Self-esteem, confidence, achievement, efficacy, respect of others,
respect by others.
V. Self-actualization people with strong values and they behave
consistently based on these values. (Eg. William James)
Morality, creativity, spontaneity, problem solving, lack of prejudices,
acceptance of facts.
Maslow’s Motivational Model
(image from lecture slides)
- Deficiency of needs to fulfill the needs due to the absence of
something in life.
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