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Lecture 6

Lecture 6 Notes.odt

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University of Toronto St. George
Matthias Niemeier

Lecture 6 ➢ Generalized Conditioned Reinforcers  The ones that are paired with many different reinforcers  Ex: money, praise, token economy(individuals can trade in tokens for something else) ➢ Effectiveness of Reinforcement  5 different factors that affect how reinforcement occurs • Immediacy • If a reinforcer is not immediately delivered, it has an affect. • Otherwise there is no associated being made (no activity in the brain?) • Contingency • Specific & consistent delivery • Establishing operations • Deprivation & satiation • Deprivation = motivation to acquire something = hunger is deprivation, and you acquire food. • Satiation= at a point, an individual will become satiated and the person may not want reinforcement (e.g. candy) • So you must have a procedure where the reinforcer has to be effective across many the entire period of operation. • Individual Differences • Variability across pple • Different things may be reinforcing for different people • You can't assume that a reinforcer is reinforcing for someone, you have to scientifically determine that. • You need to observe the child or person to determine what is reinforcing • Magnitude • Intensity of stimuli • if the aversive stimulus is high in intensity, it will strengthen the behaviour that much more to get out of the situation.  All of these factors play a role in how effective a reinforcement is in a given behaviour modification program. ➢ Schedules of Reinforcement  specifies which/when responses will be followed by a reinforcer  Continuous Reinforcement • Each response is followed by the reinforcer • simplest one: reinforcement is provided everytime • Reinforce at the beginning of the treatment • Not that resistant to extinction  Intermittent Reinforcement • Not every response is followed by a reinforcer • Resistant to extinction • Different types • fixed ratio • reinforcer occurs after x number of responses and the number does not change. • Ex: for every package that you complete, you will get a reward • produces a high rate of behaviour • but produces a post reinforcement pause = satiation may have occured • Once satiation is eliminated, then the rate of behaviour goes up. • variable ratio • reinforcer is delivered after and avg number of responses → not predictable to the individual. • It produces a high and steady rate of behaviour with no post reinforcement pause • this is the preferred approach because it is steady and has the highest rate of behaviour • • fixed interval • the reinforcement is delivered after a fixed interval of time (every 10 minutes) • produces a low rate of behaviour and on/off pattern • this is rarely used in treatment programs. • Ex: if supervisor checks up on you every 10 minutes, you'll only speed up and work right before you expect him to come in. • variable interval • reinforcer for the first response after X variable amount of time (based on an avg) • produces low but steady rate of behaviour • reinforcement is applied in a non-predictable and non-consistent fashion • Notation (eg, FR 10, VI-20-minute) ➢ Concurrent Schedules of Reinforcement  In everyday circumstances, there isn't just one behaviour and one reinforcement  Schedules of reinforcement exist at the same time for 2 or more different behaviours (concurrent operations)  # of factors influence your choice and which concurrent operant behaviours you will engage in  Concurrent operants: • schedule of reinforcement • magnitude of reinforcement • immediacy of reinforcement • response effort • the more difficult a task is, the less likely you'll engage in, as opposed to another easier household task which involves less effort. Chapter 5 – Extinction ➢ Critical Questions  What is the principle of extinction?  What happens during an extinction burst?  How is extinction different after positive and negative reinforcement?  What is a common misconception about extinction?  What factors influence extinction? ➢ Extinction  is a basic principle of behaviour  is supported by years of basic and applied research  is a component of many modification procedures.  Extinction is the weakening of a behaviour as opposed to positive reinforcement which is the strengthening of a behaviour.  Definition of Extinction  When a response (previously reinforced) is not followed by reinforcement, person is less likely to engage in behaviour again. ➢ Extinction Process  1) Apreviously reinforced behaviour  2) Is no longer followed by the reinforcing consequence  3) The behaviour is weakened (decreases and stops occuring in the future) ➢ Examples of Extinction  turning the key in a broken trunk
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